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Full text of "The Winchester Guide: Or, a Description of the Antiquities and Curiosities ..."

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T H e' '•'■ ■ .3 


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WINCHESTER GUIDE; 


K, A 


DESCRIPTION 


. i i 


OF T H 5- S _„ 



Antiquities and Curiosities- 
Of that Ancient Cjty. 

A NEW 'EDITION. 



. Illustrated with Copper-Plates* 



PhwAd Ann Sold iy J. Wilkis, inBo* 
(Prk«On»Sbi$|g «n*Six-p«ii^)f 



fm^MAJl!** 



THE 

HISTORY 

An! ANTIQUITIES of 

WINCHESTER. 



THIS place has a name among the moil 
ancient cities of the Britons, by whom 
it was called Caer GIvent, which fig. 
nines the White City, from its Situation on a 
chalky foil. Many reputable hiftorians report, 
that it was founded by Ludor Rous Hudibru, 
about Sgt years before the ChiiiHan -sera. It was a 
place of confiderable note among the ancient Bri- 
tons, and foon after the invafion of Julius Cxfir, it 
became a Roman nation, called Vents; Belganun, 
and was probably one of their cities, as appears 
from the difcovcry of a pavement of brick, and 
fome coins of Conltanune the Great, found in 
digging the foundation of the Royal Palace. It is 
Cud to. hare been tirft fortified with walls by 
B Guidorius, 



> THE HISTORY OF 

Guidorius, A.D. 179, which were demolished in 
the civil wars of the Weft Saxon princes. The 
prefent walls are reported to have been, erected by 
Moleutius Dnnwallo, A. D. 341. On the lonth 
and eaft fides, for fome diftance, they remain en- 
tire ; and many fragments of them are continued 
to a considerable extent on. the north and weft, 
particularly to the weftward, where are the ruin 
of a baftion, called the Hermit's Tower; the ex- 
ternal appearance of whkH denotes « to have been 
of confiderable ftrength. Tile circumference of 
the walla is near two miles, to which originally 
belonged fix gates, only one of which now re- 
mains, except a poftern, called KingVGate, 
which gives name to the ftreet adjoining ; though 
Leland fays, that fome ancient writers call it 
St. Michael's Gate, from St. Michael's church, 
which (rands near it. On (he weft, and on part 
of the n6rth and Youth fides, is a fcfs of prodigious 
breadth and depth, which added confiderable 
firehgtft to the fortification ; bnt to the meadows , 
which were eafily floated by the ri«r, faeh a de- 
fence was thought unneeeflliy. 

King Etnelftan eftabliJlied fix mints in this city 
for the coinage of money ; and, during the Saxon 
Heptarchy, it was the capital of the Weft Sax? 
tings, who refined in it, and adorned it wr\ 
magnificent churches, and other ilately bandings, 
- and 



WINCHESTER. $ 

and made it an epifcopal fee. From its firft foun- 
dation to this period, it was three times deftroyed 
by fire; and, by lying contiguous to die fea- 
dhore, was continually in&fted with foreign pirates. 

In the year of Ghrift 86a, it was almoft totally 
demolifhed by the Danes, who, landing oh the 
coall near Southampton, laid -the country wafle 
before them. After pillaging this city, they pro- 
ceeded towards Reading, and were met on the 
verge of Berkfhire by Ofrick earl of Hampton, 
who, at the head of the Berkfture-men, gave 
them a total overthrow. 

Near the Weil-gate of the city are fome fmaH 
remains of a flrong and ltately cattle, which, ac- 
cording to tradition, was built by the renowned 
king Arthur, A. D. 52 j. By a plan of it, drawn 
A. D. 1630, it appears to have been a quadran- 
gular ftrnfture, with a tower at each angle ; and 
we find by a (ketch in Speed, that the entrance 
from the weft was over a bridge, thrown acrbft 
the weftera fofs, leading to a gate-way, conti- 
guous to the Couth- weft angle of the building; 
and it appears, by the Came author, that it had 
out-works, with towers, to the Couth. Hey Tin 
informs us, that it was a gallant, bat not a great 
caff le, bravely mounted on a hill for defence and 
profpect. The Weft Saxon kings, and man/ of 
our princes after the conqueft, redded, and kept 
Bi their 



+ THE HISTORY OF 

their court in this caftle. It appears to have be- 
longed to the crown in the reign of queen Eliza- 
beth, who allowed 61. 13s. i\.A, to the con liable 
of it ; but we find, that, about an hundred years 
before the grand rebellion, it became the property 
of Sir William Waller, who, with his family, 
reiided in it. Egbert, the fir/1 abfolute Saxon king 
of England, was crowned in this cattle, A.'D.Sio, 
with great Solemnity ; as was alio Alfred, Edward 
the Confeflbr, and feveral others of the Saxon 
kings. William Rufus was crowned here every 
Chriftmas; and Richard the Firft was re-crowned 
in this cattle after his return from the Holy War. 
The kings of England frequently kept their 
Chriftmas and Eafter here, and both held their 
parliaments, and confined their (late prifoners j 
and we learn from Speed, that Henry the Fifth 
kept his parliament here, before he proceeded to 
Southampton to embark again ft the French. 

This city was a place of considerable ftrength in 
the feign of king Stephen ; but in the civil wars 
'between him and the emprefs Maud, it was almoft 
totally defolated. The emprefs, after gaining a 
fignal victory over the king, entered the city in 
great triumph, and was prefented by Henry de 
Blois., bifhop of Winchefter, brother to Stephen, 
with the royal diadem ; foon after which, the king, 
collecting his forces, and forming another large 
army, 

, ,Googlc 



WINCHESTER. 5 

army, followed her to Winchester, where he clofcly 
befieged her in the cattle: fhe maintained a brave . 
defence for a confiderable tiine ; but all commu- 
nication with the caille being cut off, and her 
friends in the city having revolted, the was com- 
pelled to the neceffity of feigning herfelf dead, in 
order to make her efcape ; and this report being 
circulated through the city, flie was brought out 
in a coffin, and conveyed as a corpfe through the 
mid ft of her enemies. But, during this fiege, the 
city underwent many calamities, and was fet on 
fire by the mitigation, as is fuppofed, of theafore- 
faid bifliop of Winchester; at which time were 
confumed upwards of twenty churches, Hyde 
convent, and feveral nunneries. In the reign of 
Edward the Third, a woollen manufacture, and a 
wool-ftaple was eitablifhed here, through the in- 
tereft of William of Wykeham, which employed 
all the poor in the country : the Spot fixed on for 
this purppfe lay in a back-way, from the Weft- 
gate to the North-gate, where all the ftaple- 
houfes were built. This part of the city ftill re- 
tains the name of the Staple-. garden, though not 
the leaft remains of any of thofe houfes are now to 
be feen. In the grand rebellion, this city was 
feveral times befieged by the parliament; and the 
caille, which was garrifoned by the king's forces, 
nude a brave defence. It was, at length, however, 
B 3 reduced 



& THE HISTORY OF 

reduced by Sir William Waller, its original 
owner,, and one of Cromwell's generals, who de- 
molilhea it about 164a, except the cbapel, which 
was, as it flail remains, a detached building. 
This chapel is a magnificent edifice, confiding of 
three iles, a hundred and ten feet in length, and 
forty-five in." breadth, the roof of which is fup- 
ported by marble pillars of the Gothic order, and 
are allowed to be of moil excellent workman fliip. 
A chantry formerly belonged to it, as appears by 
its difTolutibn at the Reformation. In this chapel 
a famous caufe, concerning the foperiority of the 
See of Canterbury over that of York, was tried, 
A. D. 1072, before Hubert, the pope'* legate, 
king- William, and all the biihops and abbots in 
the kingdom. The affiles for the county of Hants. 
were originally held in the eaftlc, at leaft as early 
is the year 1 272, as we learn from the Winchefter 
arinaliir, who frequently remarks, that tie royal 
fa.mily'quitteddteir reSdence at -6v place in or- 
der to" make room Tor the judges. And we learn 
from Speed, that Henry the Third fat as judge 
in this cattle, and tried many caufes hirnielf. But 
after the diiTolution of the cattle, the chapel, of 
which we' have juA been fpcaking, 'was appro* 
priated to this purpofe ; From -which time it has 
Dote the name' of Cattle, or County-hall. At pre- 
tSat i.It is eJteemed the belt court in the we'fteht 
circuit. 



WINClfE&TER, t, 

tire m t. Over die court of NLC Prina, above the 
judge's feat, hang* what is commonly called king 
Arthur's Round Table, which is one fpli.d piece 
of wood, eighteen feet in diameter. This piece 
of antiquity is faid to be upwards of twelve hun- 
dred years Handing ; though fome authors affirm, 
that it U of a much later date. ■ However, it is of 
higher antiquity than it is. commonly -fuppofed to 
be; for Panjus Joviifs.wha wrote above two hun- 
dred yean ago, relates, that it was (hewn to the 
emperor Charles the Fifth, and that, at that time, 
many roarks of its antiquity had been deltroyed ; 
thcaames-of the knights wore then juft written 
afaih,.*pd the tabk, with its, whole ornaments, 
■fffldjy flrnaired. Tilts and tournaments aw fup- 
pofed to haw been eifcrbli&ed at Win.cheiler by 
king-Arthur, and were often, held here before, the 
king ai«l- parliament. This table might probably 
have been ufed. on those oecajjons, for cntcrtain- 
iiig the combatants j which, on that account, 
was properly inscribed with .the names of Arthur's 
tweaty-fgiu- knights. The names, of the knights 
infcrjbed ofl the.ubk, are much the fame. as tbofe 
we fipd. mi .an old ■romance, called Morte Arthur, 
viz. Sir Lancelot du Lake, Sir Triftram, Sir Pel- 
teas, Six Gawajn, Sir Garethe, &c. 

During the great plague in London, t)i£ Term 
)K»3.held-herci at which, time many ftateprifonsr* 
B 4 were 

.Google 



* THE HISTORY OF 

were tried, and convifted of' treafonable defigns 
againft king James the Firft ; feveral of whom 
were beheaded before the gates of this cattle, on 
fcaffolds ereCled for that pnrpofe. 

Adjoining to the chapel, and on the very (pot 
where the cafile formerly flood, Charles the Se- 
cond began' a magnificent royal palace, from a 
deiign of Sir Chriltopher Wren, the fifft ftone of 
which wai laid March' 23, 1685. It was intended 
6y the king for his Cummer's refidente, and was 
to have been fufncient to entertain the whole court 
with, all kinds of fport and dtverfioo. There was 
particularly intended a large cupola; which was 
to have been carried thirty feet above Che roof, 
fo as to be feen a great way at fea.' The fouth 
iide is two hundred and fixteen fret, and the weftj 
tliree hundred and twenty- eight ; and the mell, 
when it was difconttnued, is faid to have coll up- 
wards of twenty-five thourand pounds, although 
the building was no further profrctrted, than bare- 
ly carried up to the roof, and covered in'.' JThe 
..principal floor confilts of a noble range of apart- 
ments, twenty fret high, and the whole building 
contains no lefs than an hundred and fix ty rooms. 
The great ftair-cafe was to Have been fupported 
by fine pillars of Italian marble-, which were pre- 
fented to the king by the grand duke of Tnfcanyj 
' , but were afterwards given to the duke of Bolton 

by 

Google 



WINCHESTER. . $ 

by king George the Firft, and arc now to be feen 
at the duke' a feat at Hackwood Park. The centre 
of thja palace, being cxafUy in a line with the 
centre of the weft end of the cathedral, the city 
wa* to hare been laid open from north to fouth, 
the breadth of the traufcepr, or crofaof the cathe- 
dral, in a ftreet about two hundred feet broad, 
which was to confift of hoaiea for the nobility, 
and perfont of rank. The fofs, which now fur- 
roands the edifice, was to have been converted 
into a fine canal, over which lour bridges were 
to be thrown, oppofite the centre of each of the 
four fronts. ' A pack was alfo laid out near ten 
miles in circumference, which terminated weft 
upon the open Downs, in view of. Stockbridgc ; 
but the fodden death of the king prevented the 
progress and execution of this noble plan. The 
hoiifc, with a royal revenue was afterwards fettled 
by parliament, as an appendage 'upon prince 
George of Denmark, for his life, in cafe he had 
outlived the queen ; bat his royal highnefs died 
before her majefty ; fo that all hopes of ever feeing 
it brpnght to any perfection are now totally va- 
nifhed. It was afterwards fitted up for the French 
prifoners, taken lait war, where upwards of five 
thoufandof thofe unhappy wretches were at one 
time confined. 

In 



*o tfcfi ftt-STGRY OF 

In n meadow-, called Ranc march Mead, fit tint- 
ed on the north of the city, without the walls, 
Guy earl «'f Warwick is faid: to have encountered 
and «)ri(]tiefed Grtlbjand the Danifh giant. The 
-battle-axe, With whieh he atehieved this memo- 
ftjjte exploit, Was kept in the-treaiury of St. Swi- 

■ rhin's cathedral till the reformation, and wat tailed 
Colbrandts Axe. 

The religion* foandiwions in this- city have been 
■■very many ; llierewe-re formerly fifty pariftt eh Hrttlef, 
Pand fotte fay ffloie> wat Ofwhrchi these bow Winains. 
-only nib*. A s anther were fuppreJfcd by U0M>p 
^bxyi* the 'reign of king Henry the. Seventh, as 
itrfuffitUru to maintain their refpeftive incunt- 
ibenw. Thofe-oow ftanding weSt. Thftnias, St. 
.Lawrence, St. Maurice, St. RartholoBKw, at Hyde, 
•St. John's, St. Peter'si Cheek-hilL St. MichaeHr, 
land St, Swithin'i, with that in the kborb if 

■ Winpatt Monaaerie! and amventual buikli«g» 
werelikewife numerous; the mod confidenrbie ef 

. thefe wai that dedicated to St. Switbin, belong- 
ing to the cathedral; which wat fituated on the 

-south fide thereof. But befides this, of which we 
'{hall fpeak more' at large hereafter, there wasia 

>very eminent one, firft founded by king Alfred. 

;»ear the prefect cathedral, whefe abbots hada 
feat in parliament. The belt account of this 
abbey wc find in the MonaiUcon, which is as 
follows; *' At 



WINCH E.S TER, II 

" At Witxthafer. vau a college .ca? leader ea- 
f* nofu, built by. king Edward the elder, .in por- 
** fuancr of his father ./Elfrid') will, Itwascall- 
." ed Newminiler, to diftingnifh it from die Old- 
•* minfter or cathedral, within the precinfls of 
M whofe cemetery it ftood, .no lef s-.th'an mo hun- 
" died years from -the time of its firft erection, 
■** till the removal of it to a place called Hyite, 
• < without the city walls of. Winchefier; where- 
." upon Ac convent loft hi name of Newminiler, 

-•** and was ever after diftingnUhed by the title of 
." Hyde abbey. ITia occafion of thh tranflation 
f* was on account of the ieveral differences ariiing 

' V from-the too near neighbourhood of thefc two 
" great churches; to prevent which for the fu- 
." turc, the: monks of Newniinfter, being of the 
*' latterfoundation, fobmittedto tranfplant them- 
" fclves as aforeiaid. On the original eftablifh- 
" men t of this convent J)y- king Edward, which 
" was in the year 903, seculars were placed in it 
" according to the founder's ■ direction, and St. 
" Grimbold nominated to prefide over them. 
" But Ms death happening before the fame waa 

*■ folly fettled, I cannot find who ebfe was fub- 
" Minced in his Head, or by whom the lame oa- 
" noni were governed. -However, it is plain that 

." they did not continue above £xty year*} for, , 
u on the promotion, of Ethelwokl (the grant pa- 

B 6 »* troa | 



ti THE HISTORY 1 OT 

'■' tron of the monks) to the fee of Wnichefter, 
' anno 963, he found means to di Halve this col- 
' lege the next year, viz. anno 964, (the ocea- 
' fion of their removal, the Monauicon tell* ns, 
' wasthe wicked life of thole fecalar canons) and 
' appropriate the revenues to the msunteoance of 
1 an abbot and monks ; on whom, as well be- 
' fore their removal to Hyde, already mentioned, 
' as finee, were conferred large privileges, not 
' only by. the munificence of the founder king 
' Edward, but alio by feveral of his fucccHbre, 
' kings of England, viz. king Athelllaii, king 
' Edward, king' Ed ted, king Edgar, king Ed- 

* mund Ironfidc, king Edward the Confetfor, 
' king William the Conqueror, and particularly 
' king Henry the Firft, and his queen Maud, as 

* may he fcen in the feveral charters in the Mo- 
1 nafticon. However, this houfe was not with- 
' out its misfortune*; for William the Con- 
' queror, at his £rft cooing, finding the abbot, 
' and twelve of hit monies iii arms agaioft. him, 
■ feized upon their eftate, and held it above two 
' years; and, in the reign of king Stephen, 
'Henry de Blois, his brother, then bifhop-of 
' Winclicfter, was fo oppreffive, that he wreltcd 
': from the monks almoA all their church plate, 

* difperfed them "to fuch a degree, (hat from fbety 
1 ttey were reduced to ten. The reaibn of the 

«' biihop'i 



WINCHESTER. 13 

" bithop's thus treating them was, that they be- 
" ing hut newly fined at Hyds.of which there had 
. " been only one abbot, who died in the eleventh 
" yearof his government, he look advantage thereof 
" to reduce them to his meafures, which are faid, 
" were to -ereA his fee into an archbifhoprick, 
" and convert this abbey into a biftioprick, and 
" fubject. it and Chkbefter, to the jurifdiftion 
" thereof, &c. Beudc*, as this monaAery had 
" often rivalled the cathedral, while it Hood in 
" its old place, fo he was apprehenfive it might 
" flill vie and contend therewith, it having been fo 
*" celebrated and famous for the fepulchret of di- 
" vers princes, &c. there interred, viz. lung Ed- 
" mund, and his Ion Elfred, St. Eadburgh, daugh- 
" terof king Edward, .Alfred, (on of king Edulf, 
" king vElfred, and, as forne authors tell us, king 
" Edred, notwithftanding there is an inscription 
•' for him. in Wincheutr cathedral. All which 
" princes bones, &c. being with great folemnity 
" removed to Hyde, created further emulation, on 
*' their depofing them with fuch ceremony there, 
" where they relied in quiet till the general ha- 
" vock of religions houfes ; which ftorm fell lb 
'* severely on Hyde, that there continue not, at 
" this day, the leaft remains of the grandeur of 
*' ttus once magnificent abbey, but the name ; 
" the very ruins being as it were periihed, not fo 
„« much 



H THE HfSTORY OF 

" as the barewalls of this godly chnrchappeating, 
" which flood jufl without the city gate, and was 
" dedicated to the Hoty Trinity, St. Peter and 
*'. St. Grimbald, and endowed with lands valued 
■ « a6 Henry 8: ar-gfiy I. 18 i, That this deftruc- 
" tton was made loon" after die Reformation, and 
" the monuments then pulled to pieces, we may 
« judge -from Leland, who gives ns the follow - 
■• ing account hereof. 

"In the fuburb flood the great abbey of Hyde, 
'' " and hath yet a paroche church. This abbey ' 
" was called Newanmirrtter, and flood in the 
" elofe hard by St. Swithin's, otherwife called 
" Ealderubinller ; but when it was tranflated 
" thence to Hyde, it bore the name of Hyde. 
. ■.* The bones of Alfred us, king of the Weft Sax. 
" ons, and of Edward his fon and king, were 
" translated from Newanminfter, and laid in a 
« tomb before the high -altar at Hyde. In which 
" tomb was of late found two little tables oflead, 
" ihferibed with their names. And here lay alio 
" the bones of St. Grimbald and lodoce." 

This monaftery was tranflated from the neigh- 
bourhood, of the cathedral, by-an edict of king 
Henry the Firft, A.D. till. The church, which 
was built with flint, cafed'with flow, appears, 
.from its ruins, to have confided of three iles, and 
. to have beeh -at kafl two -hundred and forty feet 



TfriW-C HESTE R. i S 

long. Of themonafteiy, nothing remains, ex- 
cept fome. out- buildings toward the ftreet, 'and 
• one gate-way, the moaMingj of which exhibit on 
■each fide the head of a king. The fame head oc- 
curs dn a wall towards the fouth. Great part of 
the precinct wall ii -ftill (landing. The church, of 
-St. Bartholomew, now called Hyde church, ori- 
' 'ginalry Hood within the preciricb, as did many 
parHh churches irr other places'; and the tower Of 
'St. Bartholomew was probably built with the fane 
flone collected from the ruins of the abbey. 
"' A crucifix was given- to this abbey by Canute 
-the ¥irR, efthnated at an equal value with the 
■whole revenue of the kingdom, upon which hung 
■ iheBritilh crown till that monarch's death. 

Next -to this in point of eminence, was a Bene- 
diCtihe nunnery, called St. Mary's abbey, found- 
-ed by AHwithe, the wife of king 'Alfred, A. D. 
•56b. It was filtrated near -the honfe of Pawtet 
■St. John, E% the preftnt ptrbrk*fpirfttd add 
worrhyMayor of this dry; in whofe garden, tha 
only remains of -this edifice, istobje-Aen, which 
-is now reduced te-onc finall-henp of tones. TTfil 
'piece of aiimjukyis however carefully prtfervcti, 
andmaybefsen by thecurious travelhtr. ■ It-origi- 
ntdlyconMedof an abbe&nhd twenty-one n«ns, 
'•rid-wtsvaliiedat'theiliftplnticn-ot 175!. ft. *&. 
Tbit part of Wmtfaafttt WM**0t *+ t Ab Wy ; 



16 THE HISTORY OF 

and Camden acquaints us, that the mini of it 
fltewed it to have been a Itately fabric. From this 
nunnery king Henry the Firft took his wife Maud, 
daughter of Malcolm the Third, king of Scotland,, 
by which marriage the royal families of the Sax- 
ons and Normans were united. 
. The hofpital of the Almonry of the church of 
St. Swithin, commonly called the Snltern Spytal. 
was a foundation maintained by St. Swithin's 
convent, and adjoined to the prefent college on 
the weft. . 

The eminent college of St. Elizabeth was found- 
ed by John de PontUTara, bilhop of Winchefter, 
A. D. 1300. It flood in a meadow, called St, 
Stephen's, near the prefent college on the cafl; . 
and is defcribed by Leland, thus : " The college 
" of St. Elizabeth of Hungarie, lyith ftraite eft np- 
" on the new college [Winchefter college) : and 
" there is but a little narrow canfey betwixt 
"them. The mayne arme and ftream of Alsford 
" water, divided a little above the college ( Eliza - 
'* beth college) into two annet, runnith on each 
11 fide." Afterwards he adds, •' within theft 
" two annes, not far from die college church of 
« St. Elizabeth, is a chapel of St, Stephen." The 
beft particulars of this college, we learn from the 
Monaftkon, which are here quoted for the foil 
information of the carious reader. 

The 



WINCHESTER. 17 

The biihop, in hisftatntes, fcts forth, " That he 
" founds this college before the gates of Wolvefey 
" caille, in a certain meadow, called St. Stephen'*- 
" Meadow, containing fix acres, in which alfo 
" Hands the ancient chapel of St. Stephen.; that 
" there ihoukl be three altars erected in the fame, 
" the high-altar of St. Elizabeth, one of St. Ste- 
" phen and St. Lawrence, and the third of St. 
" Edmund, king, and St. Thomai of Canterbury, 
" martyr, and placed there feven chaplains, with 
" fix clerks in holy orders, three of them to be 
" deacons, and the other three fub-deacons. One 
" of the chaplains to be chief, at the appointment 
" of the biihop of Winchefter, and fo the chap- 
"Jains and clerks all to be' placed by the laid 
" biihop. The chaplains and clerks to be JstiT- 
". feed with, one dim, and their pittance, and.on 
" Sundays, and double festivals, the chaplains to 
" have a frcond 4Uh, ..,-■. 

. " The chaplains and clerks to be obedient to 
" theif chief Jinjall things lawful, and grave in 
*' their habit and behaviour ; modeft, fober, good 
" liters, Rod. of good couverfation, -remote from 
".laymen. The cWcf for his do«thing,.over and 
": above meat and drink, to have fix marks per 
" annum, each chaplain forty (hillings, and each 
" clerk twenty IhillJcgs. . , ; •■ 

« ah 



IS THE HISTORY OP 

1 " AH of -thorn to est and drink together in the 
" fame houfe, the chief and chaplains together 
** at one table, the clerks at another. Eaohcbap- 
" Iain to lie m the fcoa allotted him, the desks 
" all til one place. Each chaplain to haya a young 
** clerk from ten to eighteen years of agej to ferve 
** and fing at church in a ftirplice, and to' ferve hint 
" in jui chamber, to be provided with meat and 
" deaths by die chief, and no chaplain to have 
" any other fervant to ferve him in particular, and 
" thoft young clerks 10 eat in the fame hall, Ye- 
™ pirate from the others. The chief, with -the 
" «ltke of the choptaStis, to order the reft of the 
"Ifanify. 

* They, -were enjoined : tt behave themftlvM 
•' devenrly'in the dhayel, to 4kf die Mattin» of 
«" onrJ,ady'tn tfie ftoming, in a-kw -voice,- «ad 
»' dirHnaiy ail together; and then to ■ fay the 
" Mattins of the day, fo that one papt of 4he choir 
"fhbalftWt -begin- before the other had done, and 
" Wat ifeft tmwnfil be a -paufe between every - 
" rtrfe. After Prima to fing J the Mafe of the 
'■" MefleiT Virgin, acoortlimg to the ufe of Sarmnf 
" andio^fitrg aH the hour*, and ihemo fey the 
" Jioors of the BMed Virgin ' in a low .voice. 
"Then to'fing the Maft of St. Elizabeth, and 
" three Mattes at proper times to be faiil} two 
" for the Dead, and the thud of the Holy Ghoft ; 
" fa 



WI>C HESTER. 19 

*' lb as not to hinder the finging fervice. All this 
" being done, about nine to begin tfte High So- 
" lemn Mafs. Every chaplain, at each Mafs, to 
" fay a particular collect for the founder of the laid 
" chapel ; another particularly for him after his 
" death j another for the bifhop's of Winchefter 
** departed ; a fourth, for the king and queen ; a 
" fifth, of the kings, queens, and all the faithful 
■'" departed ; and a fixth, for the living and dead, 
" and'efpedally for the prior and monaftery of 
" Winchefter. The chief 'and chaplains to fay 
"'Mars evBry day, unhrfs there be any lawful im- 
" pediment. 

" Beforeweringfong, the dttplalht andderki 
'« all W meet in the chapel, and fay ditttnaiy 
" the Placebo and Dirige. When a dtad'body ftiall 
**"' be in prtfence, or on an anniverfkry, er thirtieth 
" day Uic'Piacebo and Ditlge to befung, With the 
" nine leffons, excepting the PafchaJ time. After 
" which (hey are to begin the Vefpers of oar tt- 
" dy in a low voice, and then the Vefpfcrs ofthe 
" day fung. Laftly, to fing the Cotoplin of the 
" day, and lay that of our Lady: This 'is to* be 
" done every day for ever, excepting only 'tholb 
" days,' the folemn fervice of which fhatt obftruft 
" it The office to be performed according to tile 
"Tolemnnfe of Saturn. ' 

« ThB 



so THE HISTORY OF 

" The chief to take charge of all affairs both 
" at home and abroad, to give an account to the 
" chaplains, and the biihop's treasurer, of the 
" ftate of the chapel, and all that belongs to it ;. 
" and, with the advice and confent of the laid 
" chaplaint, to order and difpofe of the reve- 
" nucs of the fame. If the chief be negligent, 
" or a dilapidator, the fame to be made out to 
" the bilhop of Winchefter ; bat not by any par-. 
" ticulac chaplain, without the confent of the 
".major part of them. 

" No chaplain to be abfent, without leave, at 
*' any hours in the chapel. 

" None to be admitted to k without being well 
'.* examined as to his learning, ringing, and un- 
" derftanding of the divine office. ., 

; " No women to come within the inclofnre of 
"the houfe, any farther than into the church, or 
" the hall. 

" The chaplains and clerks, at their firft ad- 
•• million, to fwear to obferre thefe ftatutes, dated 
" in the year 1301." 

This college was valued, at the diftbluttOn, at 
11zI.17J.4d. 

On the north ride of the church-yard of St. 
Mary's abbey, before defcribed, flood the chape] 
of the Holy Trinity, confuting of a warden, and 
fcveral priefb. 

Here 



WINCHESTER. at 

Here was 2 convent of each of the four orders 
•of Mendicant Frierj. The Aaguftine Frienwere 
fituate on the fouth of the city, in the road to 
Southampton ; the Grey Friers, or Minors, on the 
call, and the Dominican! on die north, juft within 
the city. To thcfe we may add the prior, and 
brethren of St. Peter in the church of St. Mau- 
rice, and the church of St. Mary Kalendar. 

But the molt noble and magnificent of thefe kind 
of buildings in this city, was the monaftery and 
cathedra], originally founded by Lucius, the firft 
Chriftian king, who is faid to have confecrated it 
to the honour of our Saviour on the 4th of No- 
vember, A. D. 169.. This Hood about an hun- 
dred and two years, and was deftroyed in the per* 
fecution of the emperor Diocletian, A. D. 166, 
We End it afterwards reftored, and confecrated 
by Conftantiaa to Amphibalus, martyr, A. D. 309. 
About the year 542, the fons of Mordred flew 
into it to avoid the cruelty of Conftantine, who, 
dt ("regarding the fan&ty of the place, murdered 
one of them before the altar. It continued under 
this name, in the full enjoyment of its privileges 
till the time of Cerdic, firft king of the Weft 
Saxons, who driving away Ibme, and killing others 
of the monks, turned it into an idol temple. 
Kingelife, one of his fucceuors, and the firft 
Chriftian king of the Weft Saxons, again reftored 



j* 



2z THE HISTORY OF 

it; and demolishing the old cathedral, laid the 
foundation of a new one, A. D. 611, which 
was finifhed by his Ton Kenwalch, who fucceedcd 
to the regal authority. Birinus and Agilbertus 
were the two firft bifhops of this new foundation ; 
but, on ibme dilpute, the fee of Dorcheiter was 
removed hither, A. D. 66a; and Wina was ap- 
pointed to the bilhopric, who falling afterwards 
under the difpleafure of Kenwalch, purchafedthe 
fee of London of WuIpRire, king ofMercia, and 
is reckoned the firft fimoniacal biffiop in England. 
The chapter of this new foundation, who were 
seculars, continued about three hundred years; 
but were at length removed by the perflation of 
biihop Ethelwold in the reign 'of king Edgar, 
A. D. 963, who fubltituted a convent of Bene- 
dictines, which remained till the reformation. 

The prefent edifice was began, A. D. 10/3, 
by bilhop Walkelyn, a Norman, in the reign of 
William the Conqueror, who finished the tower, 
the choir, the tranfept, and, probably the Weft 
end j accordingly, the monks, in the pretence of 
almoft ill the bifhops and abbots in the kingdom, 
palfed, with much ftate and folemnity from the 
old monaftery to the new one, A. D. 1093, on 
die feaft of St. S within, to whom it was confe- 
crated; and, in the moll folemn procelSon, 
tranflated the flirinc of that Saint to the new 
church 



WTNCTKESTER. af 

emiKh. The whole was afterwards nobly im- 
proved by William. of Wykeham ; and at length 
iniflied, as it now appears, by biftop Fa*, of 
whole ample benefactions and alterations, we (hall- 
fpc.k more at large hereafter. 

When this eminent convent, which confined of 

a prior and forty-two monks,. had flourished in its- 

splendor and magnificence for. near, nine hundred 

years,- it was diflblved by Henry the Eight!], 

November the 1.5th, 1539) who feized the gold 

and filver plate,, image), and other rich ornaments,. 

both of the church and convent,, and afterward* 

inflitutcd the prefect foundation,. and dedicated 

it to the Holy Trinity. It con lifts of one dean, 

, fix minor canom, ten lay. 

si!,. eight chorifters, arid other 

evcnues, at the di Ablatio a,. 

11..17*. 2d. the greateft part 

printed to the new dean and 

prior was William Bafyng,. 

a was made the the firil dean,. 

,1 ,. Great part of the mouaf- 

gsof St. Swithin'i were, about' 

d, as ufelefi.to the new foun- 

hedral,. fince its dedication to 

las bore the common apptlJa. 

rch. 

i mawiiikent fabric, from caA 
idrea and forty-five feet ; of 
hapcl includes fifty-four, and 
ed and thirty-fix. The length 
Com 

, , Google 



*y THE" TTrST-OTRT. CFFT 
fMin the iron dm, ttrarthewthweedf the' choir 
to [He ptfrtii iw-tte-weft'eli'd.'is'tbfeeWiirfred'Md- 
flfty^tie feet;; the length of the tranfqitj is an 
Knodfed sod eigltty-fiSt -ftetvthe -bwatflfc of lift 
body, below the trrinfeptl, is eighty-ftWta^etr 
and, of the choir, fcrty. The VMritltt;' ift-ihe/in- 
Bda 'i* *we*tyJffj£ feet high j-fift 'Waft 'height df 
ihe tttwer is'diie-hoiidrtfd arid thtrtyieigHt feet end' 
n Wff; i«a Ih WeiefthWty-'fett ■byTorty-eTgltf.- 
This tower l»-<aYriea : ft*>b«*>eVy,lKlfe1Mg6t' 
sbove thtraof; riot inorc-ilfjta twenty &X'flWt,taa> 
Id) no p'toper fimfttog j-'bUtftfeortreiiTVihilf thfc 
btitMfog baa^een^eft-bffs which, very tifoWbtyv. 
Bright be the cafe, ftfr thert is flrength ehoogh' 
Tiilbw to fuppbft a ftMple higher "than that of Sa~ 
Tftfoilry. Hie -prdfpea; frota'fo Weft a eh*<of flit 
Wrtffdfc lie tO the felt- WtattB*, beyond *e'eH8&y 
•ftfjft IMkfeevelfy OiihdYoirrtpfHfe'df theft '" ■*-■ 
» 'fdl fedltigs that 'afire fftfih the coritenipratitih' 
"*• of that greafticfs ah d' extern which 'are peeuliiY 
* » the proportions bf (SbAflc^rchfCeitUre." 

A judicious ftna entertaining pa'ffifgfc iWfii' 
'toWttfi lifedf WHliktn df VPjteharo We fcinfe- 
Hew properly tntttibu& ' TMiUe-wtt'oHgl. 



• The^ - 



WINCHESTER. a S 

■ The nave of the church had been for fome time 

* in a bad condition. Bifhop Edyngdon under- 

* -took to repair it in the latter part of hit time, 

* and by hi* will ordered bis executors to finifh 

* what -lie had begun. And whether in pursuance 

* of his defign, and by hii benefaction, orother- 

* wife, it appears, that in the year 13.71, fome 

* work of this kind was carrying on at agreatea- 

* fence. However, Wykehara, upon doe canfi- 
' deration and fnrvey, found it either fo decayed 
'and infirm, or elfe fo mean in its appearance, 

* and fo much below the dignity of one of the 
' firft epifcopal fees in the kingdom, that he de- 

* termined to take down the whole from the tower 

* wefiward, and to rebuild it both in a ftronger 

* and more magnificent manner. This great 

* work he undertook in the year 1394. and en- 

* tered npon k the beginning of the next year, 
' upon the following conditions, ftipolated be- 

* tween him, and the prior and convent, whs ac- 
' <iuit the bifhop of all obligation to it, and ac- 
' knowledge it as proceeding tram his mere libe- 

* rality and zeal for die honour of God. They 
*■ agree to find the whole fcfiffblding neceffary for 
« the work ; they give the bifhop free leave to dig 

* and carry away chalk and fend from any of their 

* lands, as he fhall think moll convenient and uft- 
' ful for' the fame pnrpote ; and they allow the 

* whole materials of the old building to be applied 
' to the ufc of the new. He employed William 

* Win ford at architec? : Simon Mcmbpry was 

C »p- 



16 THE HISTORY OF 

* appointed- Surveyor of the work on the billiap's 

* part, and bsn« Wayte, one of the monk*, con- 
troller c> the part of the convent. As the 
church of Wincheiterisfitnawdon a low ground, 
which, wilhmst great precaution and expence, 
affords no very fure foundation for fo weighty a 
ftru&ure, Wylseham thought it faftft 10 conhac 
hitafetf teethe plan of the former boil ding, and 
Is ma4oe «& of a foundation already tried, and 
fubje& to Bfi hazard. He even chafe to apply to 
Bis purpose feme paK of the lower order of pi- 
lars of the, old chuechi though his dengn was 
in * liiiFere.Bt.fiyle of arnhiteSure j that which 
we commonly call Gothic with feinted anchea 
and windows, without kcy-ftonca, awl pillar* 
confining of an aflamWage of man/ fiuall onei 
clofely countered together, liut which is mere 
properly Saracen, fariech wu itsorigin. The 
Crufaaes gave us an idea of this form, of archl- 

-(■rSin-.i, which afterwards prevailed throughout 
Europe . The pillars, or piors of the old boird-. 
iug, which he made nfc of, were about fifteen 
feet in height ; of the Jkme rorntwith theft ia 
the ealt fide of lie northern crofs-ils : these he 
car»ied op higher according to the new dengn, 
altering their torn, but rataniin^ their strength, 
and adopting thera aa a nun bast far his own 
work. Tk new pflbrrs are nearly eaual in 
bulk CD tiie- old ones ; and the intei«oIiHM)ia- 
oon remaina much the fame. Thefecitvum- 
ftnnces, in whisk aUnUttf and fee urity." were vary 
' * wifely 



WINCHESTER. *7 

* wifely in the firft place confalted, bare been it- 

* .tended, however, with fome inconvenience, aj it { 
' feems owing to them, that this building has not i 

* that ligbtnefs and freedom, and that elegance • 

* of proportion, which might" have been expeftfd ' 
' from Wykeham's known tafte in architecture, S 

* «nd from the ftile and manner of his other j 

* works in this kind ; of which we have evident ' 
f example) in the Chapels of both hii colleges, 

* efpeainlly m the weilern part of that of New 

* College in Oxford, which it remarkably beau- 

* tiful. To the further disadvantage of it* pre- 
' fern appearance, an alteration which could not 

* then be ftrrefeen hat fiace happened. At that 
' time the buildings of the monaftery covered the 

* whole fouih tide of the church, fo that it feemed 

* needlefj to be at a great espenee upon orna- 

* merits in that part which was like to be for 

* ever concealed. By the demolition of the mo- 

* nsfhrjr this fide is now laid' open, and' difcovers 

* a defect of burtreftes and pinnacles, with which 

* the north fide, which was then the only one in 

* view, is properly furnilhed. Ann rber alteration 

* of the fame kind bar been made in (he i nfitlc, 

* and with the like effect. Immediately before the 

* entrance of the choir flood the veftry, which 

* extending front fide to fide of the nave, pre- 

* vented the entire conform at km of thofe pillars 

* again ft which' it rafted to-tlie new defign ; but, 
' mc the fame time conceded the irregularity. In- 
< the time of Charier the Firft this was palled 

C 2 < down 



it THE HISTORY OF 

* down, and the prelim beautiful fkreen, the work 
' of Inigo Jones, was erecled ; but no care was 
' taken, by an eafy and obvious alteration, to cor- 
' reft a deformity, which was then uncovered, and 
' Hill continues to difgrace the building, in a part 

* which, of all others, is the molt frequently ex- 

* pofed to obfervation. However, with all its de~ 
< feds, which appear thus to be owing partly to 
" an accidental and unforefeen change of circum- 
' fiances, and partly to the care of (voiding greater 

* i neon ve men cies, there is no fabric of its kind in 
' England, after thofe of York and Lincoln, which 
' excels this part of the cathedral charch of Wjn- 

* chefter, in greatnefs, fiatelinefs, and majefty. 

* This great pile look up about ten years in crect- 
' ing, and was but jull jjnifhed when tbe bittiop 
' died. He had provided in his will for the en- 
1 tire completion of hi* defjgn by bis executors, 
' io cafe of his death ; and allotted two thoufand 

* five hundred narks for what then remained to 
' be done, befides five hundred marks for tbe 

* glafs windows. This was about a year and a 
' half before it was finilbed ; by which fome 
' fort of efiimate nay be made of the whole ex- 

* pence.* 

From this ile. by a irately flight of Heps, wc 
approach the choir. The fltreen above menti- 
oned is of the compofite order, in which, on 
each fide of the entrance, are two recedes, en- 
riched with entablatures and compafs pediineu.es, 
wherein aie placed the fiatnes of the kings James 



WINCHESTER. *j 

and Cliailes the Firft. They are both of copper, 
and were given, with the fkreen itfelf, by the lat- 
ter of there monarcht. In the civil war), the re- 
bels, among other outrage* barbaronfly defaced 
and abnfed both thefe. ftatuca, but particularly 
that of Charles; attempting to break off the crown, 
and declaring, with much matfcious vehemence, 
' that they would bring him back to the parlia- 
' ment.' The Halls are of Norway oak, and are 
a maAerty piece of Gothic fpire work, being at 
once elegant aftd majeftic. They were erected by 
prior Silk efjede, as appears by his name cut out 
on the pulpit, with which they are terminated on 
the north fide. " On the fame fide Hands the or- 
gan, which was removed thither by command of 
king Charles the Firft, from the front fkrcea 
above mentioned, where it was jvilJy fuppofed to 
intercept the view from the weft to the eaft end. 
The Halls, on the Couth fide, are bounded by the 
bifhop'a throne, erected by bifhop Trelawney j 
the pediment of which is embetlifhed with a mitre, 
and the arms of the fee impaling thofe of bis fa- 
mily, and is fnpported by fluted column* of the 
Corinthian order. The vaulting of the roof of 
the choir was executed in the reign of Charles the 
Pirft, there being, before this, an opening front 
the choir into die firft (lory or room of the tower ; 
on which account the fide arches of the firft ftory, 
being intended to be feen from below, are wrought 
and ornamented. We find the fame opening in 
the tower of St. Croft, which was built about the 
C 3 feme 



3 a THE HIS TO RY OF 
fame tine. It was undoubtedly looked upon as 
a beauty in architecture ; and bad, in fome mea- 
fore, the fame e&ft as the louvre, or open lan- 
thorc, formerly ufed in great balls. Height of 
roof in the i niide was alfo a favourite cirt umflance 
in flruflures of this kind, which was produced by 
this expedient, in a very [inking degree. The 
arms and initial) of the king, with thofe of his con- 
fort, queen Mary, and of John Young, dean at that 
time, are introduced among the ornamects of the 
vaulting, which is of wood. Th> two branches 
arethegift of the lateDr. Cheney, by whofe be- 
nefaction the choir was paved with marble. la 
the pannels, below the flail^ under the organ,, 
on the oppofne fide, are fome memorials of the 
new foundation of Henry the Eighth, with the 
date ijaq, in which the new eftaUtfhment com- 
menced ; the lung's arms, with H. R. viz. Hen- 
riciis Rex ; the arms of the church, given by the 
faid king ; the portcullis, and the arms of Wil- 
liam Kyngfmill, the nrft dean, with W. K. anoV 
the arms of a bifhop of Winchelkr, as appears by 
the garter and a mitre, with the initial S. and 
another letter illegible. In the area, leading to 
the high altar, is a plain raifcd monument, of a 
greyifh ftone, without any inscription, under 
which William Rufiis was buried, A. D. icoo. 
This prince, when hunting in the New Forefr, 
was accidentally fliot with an arrow by one Walter 
Tyrrel, a French knight, who immediately cm* 
barked for I' ranee. The king being tilled, and 
dtfcrtci 



WINCHESTER, yi 

defected by his courtiers, was taken op, pat into 
a collier's cart, and, in that manner, conveyed 
to this catheraU and laid andtx the tomb of 
which we have jolt been {peaking. It is remark- 
able, that two foni, and one grand ion, o£ William 
the Conqueror, were killed in the fame foreft. This 
tt>mb was opened by the rebels in the civil wars, 
who ftole from thence the remain* of a cloth of 
- g iIJ, a ring fet with) rubiei, bid to be worth 
n'«e hundred pounds, and a fmall filver chalice. 
With this area the preibytery begin), which hi 
ornamented with n roof highly finiihed, in a dif- 
ferent tafte from that of the tower, and is fepa* 
rated, on each fide,, (torn- the north and fouth 
ilea, by a wdl executed partition wall of open 
work. On the top of each wall are placed three 
fhrinei or chefts, beautifully carved, painted, and 
gilded, with a crown on each, in which are de- 
posited the bones of fcveral, of the Weft Saxon 
kings, biihops, and tome later princes, who had 
been originally buried behind the attar, or in dif- 
ferent parts of the church. Thefe remains were 
thus carefully collected and depofited by bifhop 
for, A. D. 1525. The afcent to, and area of 
the high altar, it paved with marble, by the be. 
Refaction of Dr. William Harris, prebendary, 
and fchootmafter of Winchefter college, who dying 
A. D. 1700, bequeathed eight hundred pounds 
for beautifying the altar. The wood work about 
the altar was erected by bilhop Fox ; bat the ca- 
nopy, with its fcftoons, and other ornament** 
C 4. were 



j* THE HISTORY OF 
were added about the time when the new (kreen 
of Inigo Jones, at the entrance of the choir, wn 
fcuilt, as appears by C. R. in the cornice. The 
two doors, or entrance on each fide, flill remain-, 
through which the piieft approached the altar 
from the Sanctum Sanctorum . The topi of three 
niche* are iikewife remaining over the altar, which 
probably contained three images, representing the 
Trinity, Behind is a very lofty ftreen or par- 
tition of done, charged with moil exqnifite em- 
feellUhments of Gothic workman (hip, and infi- 
nitely fuperjor, >n point of fini thing, to one of 
the feme kind in St. Alban's abbey church. The 
niches, before the Reformation, were filled with 
fiataes of folidfilver; but are at prefent fupplied 
with urns, which were the gift of Dr. William 
Harris before mentioned, The Screen, fide-par* 
tition walls, roof of the prefbytery, and of -the 
adjoining fide iles, with their walls and windows, 
were finiOied at the expence of biihop Fox, A. D. 
1525, as appeal; by hia name and arms carved in 
many places. The fame liberal benefactor, wits 
painted glals, which he caufed to be made, new 
glazed the windows of this part of the church-; 
that is, the choir windows, and tbofe of the pa- 
rallel iles. He Iikewife fronted the boondery of 
the choir on the sulfide, with two beautiful pin? 
nacles, and other ornamental architecture, among 
which his (tatue is placed, cloathed with the epif. 
copal habit. He probably intended to complete 
the remainder of the eaft end in the tame Ry.k ; 



WINCHESTER; 33 

Dad it feems, that he reduced the windows in the 
weft fide, to their pre fen t form. It ii conjectured, 
from good authority, that the bifhop was affifted 
in this work by prior SilkelWe $ this prior, at 
lead, co-operated with bifhop Fox, in improving 
the church, by building the flails, and a chapel, 
about the tine when Fox began thefe alterations. 
His initials, T. S. are in the roof of Fox's pref- 
bytery. It would feem that cardinal Henry 
Beaufort left fome money for this purpofe, as 
H. B. appears on the ontfide of the fouth parti- 
tion wall, and over its entrance. He died not 
many years before Fox was advanced to the bi- 
ihopric. In the grand rebellion, the altar flcteen, 
ju ft mentioned, was artfully protected from the 
violence of the rebels by means of an extempora- 
neous wall, or partition, creeled in a parallel line 
jult before it, (o as entirely to conceal its beauties 
from the obfervation of the facrilegious intruders. 
Other parts of the church, however, did not efcape 
the miftaken zeal of thefe enemies to all that was 
graceful or majtltic ; for on the 16th of December, 
1642, the foldiers, under Sit William Waller,, en- 
tered the church, where they broke in pieces the 
carved work of the choir, containing the flory of 
the Old and New TefUment, in admirable ima- 
gery. They deilreyed the organ, feized the rich 
tapeftry, cufhions, and vefiments of the choir, 
with the velTels of the altar, threw down the com- 
munion table, and carrying off the rails which en- 
compaJTcd it, they burnt them in their quarters. 
C 5 They 



34 THE BISTORT OF 
They foaod great ftute of popilh books, pi#urev 
amd cNicifiwti in thepnbendal konfea, which, after 
a mock preceffion, were burnt, together with the or- 
gan pipes in the iireet. After this r tr!c;rdefaeed ma. 
ny of tie monuments ; and pulling down fomeof 
the theits which contained the remains of the Saxon 
kings, they threw their bones again ft the painted 
■glafs, which they drftreyed throughout the church* 
except the beautiful window, over the altar, exhi- 
biting the portraits of feveral faints and bifhops of 
this church, which, being more oat of tbeir reach, 
and lefj expofed than the reft, is ftill preferred en- 
tire, together with- a few figures on the windows 
contiguous. The grand weft window feems to be 
made Dp of the difperfed fragments, which, imper- 
fect a; it is, has a fine effeft, and * leaves the pen- 

* fire imagination to- fiipply that religious light* 
'which was diffated over ail the church, when, 

• every window retained its original fplendor.* 
In thji general deftruction, however, the elegant 
tomb of William of Wykeham was happily pre- 
ferred by one Cuff, a rebel officer in Sir William's 
army; who having received his education at the 
college of this city, held htmfelf under an indif- 
penfable duty of protecting, with bis life, the 
monument and remains of that munificent founder. 
The repairs of the devastations committed by 
thefe fanatic enthufiaft* were made about A. D. 
1663, foon after the return of the dean and chap- 
ter ; who having been expelled during Cromwell's 
ufurpation, did not retake poffeffion till Aug. 1 9, 

t66o; 

, ,„,,Goog[e 



WINCHESTER. 3S 

1660; although a fermon was preached in it on. 
the proclamation of king Charles the Second, ia 
May preceding, as appears by the following ex- 
tract. ' At Wincheiter, the mayor and aldermen, 

* in their fcarlet gowns, met at the markel-crofs, 

* and went down to the cathedral, where they beard 

* a very loyal and eloquent fermon from Mr. 

* Complin, minifler of Avington, near Winchefter. 

* Marching thence into the High-ftreet, the mayor, 
' with the reft of the corporation, afcended a 

* fcaffbld, covered with a red cloth, and there 

* folemnly proclaimed king Charles. The which 

* ended, the multjuetteers gave a gallant volley : 

* then, filence being commanded, the remaining 

* part of the cathedral finging- men, whereof Mr. 

* Burt, a gtntleman of eighty years of age, was 
' one, wito the mailer of the choirifter, and other 
' muEcal gentlemen, limga folemn anthem, in a 
' room built on parpofe fo me wo at above the 
' mayor's fcarrbld, the words, O Lord, make thy 
' fervant Charles our gracious king, to rejoice in 

* thy ftrength,' &e. 

The talt end of the church is terminated by 
three chapels. That on the. loath is adorned with 
the tomb of Thomas Lertgton, hiihop of Win. 
chefter, by whom k was built. The rood-loft of 
this chapel conMs of elegant Gothic carving in 
wood, and both the fides are ftnifhed in the fane 
tafia; but the work has been much damaged. 
Under the windows are firveral niches for ftaiues. 
The roof is painted with a hen on a tun, being a 



36 THE HISTORY OF 
rebus on Hen ton, the place of the b) (hop's nati- 
vity, and partly on bis name ; the icfciiption, 
Laus tibi Chrifti. 

The chapel in the centre is dedicated to the 
Virgin Mary; it was erefted by prior Silkeftede 
before mentioned r and is ufed at pretest for morn- 
ing prayer). The prior's name is on the roof;: 
and, on the fides, which were adorned with an- 
cient paintings, are em boiled the arms of England,. 
of SilkeKede, of the fee, and a rebus of T. Lang,- 
ton, as in the chapel joft described, and who was- 
bifhop in the former part of Silkeftede's priorate ; 
for whom alfo a tun is introduced on the cieling, 
the infcriptidn ' ad gtoriam Dei.' The fame em- 
boffments appear on the outride of the building 
in the church-yard. In this chapel queen Mary 
was married to Philip king of Spain ; and thfr 
chair in which fhe was feated during the ceremo- 
ny,' Hill remains near the altar. On the north 
side of the Virgin Mary's chapel, it a fmall cha- 
pel, dedicated, perhaps, to St. Michael ; as the 
portraiture of that angel appears in many parts of 
the roof. In this chapel are the monuments of bi- 
fhop Edington, and dean Mafon. Here is, likewife, 
the magnificent monument of the earl of Portland, 
lord high treafurer of England, in the reign of 
king Charles the Firft. His effigy is in copper ar- 
mour at fall length, with his head railed on three 
camions of the fame. 

In the fonthera tranfept is another chape}, built, 
at fome imagine, by SilkcAcdc, which it called 



WINCHESTER. f} 

fcy liis name ; though other* fay he wai not the 
founder, but only made ufe of it a* a private ora- 
tory : be, however, feeras to have borne fome 
relation to it, for, on the oppofite fide, are the 
remains of a canopy,, onder which the preJTes for 
the choir vefimems are placed,, which formerly 
feems to have been the covering of flail), and ftill 
preferves in the cornice the initial letters of Silke- 
ftede's name, often repeated. It is probable thefe 
originally belonged to the oppofite chapel. It is 
not unlikely that SilkefEede altered the windows 
on this fide of the tranfept ; for, on the library 
window, contiguous to them on the onifide, it 
carved T. S. for Thomas Silkeftede, as is before 
obferved. The elegant Screen of this little cha- 
pel was, at leaft, creeled by this prior ; for on it 
is carved, in large ornamental Gothic characters, 

c $<d »a £> $> 

Afcw years fince, that part of the Screen before 
die family vault of ferjeant Eyre, adjoining to 
this chapel, was beautified, and brought to in 
prcfent perfection by that family. 

The' library, at the footh end of the fouthero 
tranfept, was reduced to its prefent form,, and 
repleniihcd with a valuable collection of books, 
by biihop Morley, A. D. 1686. But it evidently 
was a room belonging to the convent, as appears 
by the initial letters of prior Silkeltcde'a name, 
cut in a moulding of the eaft window, anfwering 
to the arms of the fee in the oppofite moulding. 
The prefent chaptei-houfe, being the weftcrn ile 
of 



3 8 THE HISTORY OF 
wf the Couth trttifept, was appropriated to that pur- 
pofc A.D. 161I. Inthenortrrerntranfeptarefome 
imperfeCt nice? of ancient painting, fuppofed to 
represent the combat of Guy Earl of Warwick 
with thcDaniih giant before mentioned. About the 
middle of the great weftern ile Hands an ancient 
font i it is a fquafe, many block cf jet coloured 
marble, in which a circular bafoo is formed for 
the water. It is three feet three inches over, 
fupported by a plain pedeflal of ftone. The fides 
of the Equates are ornamented with rude bafs re- 
lievos, which feefti to reprefent the miracles of 
fome faint belonging to this church ; and, if we 
may judge from the ftyle of the architecture intro- 
duced in the carving on the fouth fide, this fin- 
gular monument of antiquity was the workmanflrip- 
«,f the Saxon times. Under tlic Sanctum Saoito- 
rnm, behind the altar, m ike royal *>a'«lt, or bury- 
ing pJaoa of the Saxon kiap, whofc remains were 
collefltd by Fm, as before observed, and depofiied 
» the chetks oa each fide the altar. The firft of 
thefc cheilson the fouih. fide baa this inscription: 
Edredns Rex, obih anno 955. 

Hie pins in toauto Rex Edredus requiefcit, 

Qui has Britonam terras rexerat egregie. 

In Engirfli thus. 

King Edred died in the year 9;;. 

Here relts the pious Icing Edred in his tomb, 
Wao notably governed thefc lands of lie Britons* 



WIMCHESTER; 39 

The fecond che* has thisinfoription. 
Effmnndus Rex, obih ..... 

Q^m*ecalracrerin«EcmonoSimfirfcipe,Chnfe r 

Qui viventc Patre Regia fceptra tulit. 
, King Edmund dy'd ...... Receive, O'Chrift, 

Edmund, whom this cbeft contains, who fwsy'd 
the regal fceptre while his father was living. 

The third theft formerly contained the bones of 
Camitus, and William Rufm, who were interred 
below ; and had formerly this infcription. 

Hie jaeent ufla Cnutonis, & WiUielmi Roff, 
Here lye the bones of Cnate and William Rufos, 
In (lead of which, there has Since been put on It 

the following infeription. 

In hac ET altera e regions cista, reli- 

qvje srHT09siowCNOTi,&R*riRFGirM j 

EmuJS RboinJC; WihaIs Alwini Epis- 

ccrMSH. 

In this, and ibe otker op pofita- cbeft, are the re- 

mains of thetecnes af Cnuti, Md Rufas, kings f 

or' t|uccn£mBia ; Wiea and Alwyn, bkhops. 

On the outfide of the fir ft eh eft from the altar 

on the north partition wall, is this infcriptfon. 

Rex Kingilfus, obi it 641. 

King Kingilife dy'd 641. 

On the choir fide of the fame cheft. 

Adulphus, obiJt 857. 

Kiogilfi in cilta hac fimul ofla jaeent, & AdwlpLi, 

Alter Fuudator, hie Benefactor erat. 

Adulpaus 



ft THE HISTORY OF 

Adulphuady'd 857. 
In this cheit lye together the bones of Kingiliie- 
aod Adulphui. The firfl was Founder, th* 
latter a Binefaflor. 

The fecond cheft Has this inscription. 
Kenulphus Rex, obiit 754. 
King Kiauiphus died 754. 
On the choir fide. 
Egbcrtus, obiit 837. 
Hie Rex Egbertus panfat cum Rege Kenulpho 
Nobis egregie munera utetque tulit. 
Egbert dy'd 837. 
Here king Egbert lies* with Icing Kinulph us, 
Each of them brought us noble prefents. 
On the third theft was formerly this infcripiion. 
Hie jacent ofia Winte Epifcopi. 
Here lye the bones of bilhop Wjna. 
With the bones of bilhop Wins, were enclosed 
thofe of Stigand, at firft bilhop of Winchester, 
afterwards tranilated to the fee of Canterbury, 
A. D. 1052 1 and on the north fide of the coffin 
was this inscription. 

Hie jacet Stigandus Archiepifcopua. 

Here lies Archbifhop Stigand, 
But now the infeription upon it is, 

Itl H*C CISSA A.D. I66l, PIOMISCOE RECON- 
DITA SOHT OS8A PaiBCIFlIM IT Pr^LA- 
TOROU, SACR1LSOA BAKBARIB DISESRaA 

A, D. 1642. 

In 



WINCHESTER. 4? 

lit tins clieft, in the year of our Lord 1642, were 

promiicuoafly laid op the bones of prince* 

and prelates, which had been fcattered about 

with facrilegiotu barbarity, in the year of our 

Lord 1642. 

Upon the partition walls, are fome ancient mo- 
naments to the memory of feveial noble perfon- 
ages ; viz. under tbefecond cheftin the Touch wall, 
is a monument with the following infeription, 

Intus ell corpus Ricardi, Willielmi Coiiqucltotja 
£lii, & Seornix ducii. 

Within is the body of Richard, fen of William 
the Conqueror, and duke of Barre. 

This Richard was the brother of Rufus, and 
was killed in the New Foreft. Near hi* monu- 
ment, is entombed the heart of Ethelmare, bi- 
fliop of Winchefter, which was found in an ewer, 
and has this infeription t 

Obiitanno 1261. 

Corpus Ethelmari, cujus cor nunc tenet iftud 

Saxum, Parifis morte datur tumulo. 
The body of Ethelmare, whole heart this flone 

contains, lies interred at Paris, He died in the 

year 1261. 

Near the entrance of the choir in the fame wall, 
is this infeription : 
Intus eft cor Nicolai olim Wjntonienna Epifcopi, 

cojus corpus eft apud Warcrly. 
Within is the heart of Nicholas formerly Bilhop of 
■ Wincheier, whole body is buried at Waverly. 

• oh 



ifz -THE HISTORY OF 

On the north £de of rite wall formerly flood * 
&unh chefi, con-t aiding the bones of the tnfhop* 
Elmftan and Kyflulphos, wild thi« iofaiptions 
Pon-tificeslnec capfaduoi tenrt nrerncratos, 
Primus Elmitanus, huic fucceilorque JCjrmlphiis,. 
This cheft ton tains the remains of two bifhop?. 
The fifft Elmftan, and hi. fucceffor KpiulptiEis. 

The monument of Bifliop Alfymm was on the 
■ fame wall, e aft ward of bifhop Elmftan's, with 
this infeription ; 

Alfymus plumbo prxfol requwfch in ifto, 
Alfymus, a Bilhop of this church, refts in that 
leaden urn. 
Under Kingulfhis'i theft, in the fame nail,- ia> 
this infeription : 

Qui jam- hie Regit! fcrptrurn tulit Hardicanuto* 

Emma: Cnutonis gnatni et ipfc fuit. 

Obiit mi. 

Hasdicanute, whofe butty lies here, held the fcep- 

tcr of this kingdom ; he was the fon of King: 

Canute and Queen Emma. He died 1 1 14. 

In the fame wall, is this -infeription : 

A) win us, obiit 1047. 

Hie jacet Alivini corpus, qui munera nobis 

Coniulit egregia, parcito Chriite pio. 

Alwyn died 1047. 

Here lies the body of Atwyn, who made us feverat 

tare prefents,. Chi irt fpate his pious foul, 

AJwyn 



WINCHESTER. 41 

AKvyn was biihop of this See, in ibe reign of 
Edward Che ConfeflW ;- and whs eon fined in one/ 
of the monafleriea of this city, on foipicion of a 
criminal connexion with queen Emma, who clear- 
ed the bifhop and herfetf front- ihst afpeifton, by 
performing the Fiery Ordeal, that U, the walking. 
blindfolded over nine plow- Shares, red hot. This 
B\e is (aid to have done at the eaft end of the ca- 
thedral, without receiving the leaft injury ; upon 
which memorable event, and by way of thank f- 
giving for her deliverance,, (he added nine manors, 
to tbe revenues of the church. Her monument la- 
in the fame wall with the biuop'i, and has this. 
' infcription: 
Hie Em roam cifta Regi nam conduct ifl*,. 
Duxit Etheldredus Rex hanc, et poftea Cnutus p 
Edward um parit haec, ac Hard icanu turn 
Quatuor hos Reges base videt fceptra tenentes ; 
Anglorum Regum fuit hxc Ac Mater et Uxor. 
Thii chelt contains Queen Emma, who firft mar- 
ried King Ethelred, and afterwords Canute; 
flie bore Edward and Hardtcanute, and lived to 
fee them reign ; thus was (he both Mother and 
Wife of Englifli Kings. 

Under the monument of bifhop Altunus, tve 
read this infcription t 

Pefon&i corpus luumlut tenet ifte Jofcanaa 

FontOkS, Win too i«i prsefulis exiraii, 

Otutt anno 1304. 

Tin 



44 THE HISTORY (TF 

This tomb contain) the body of John Pontois* an 

amiable billiop of Winchefter Cathedral. 

Who died in the year 1304. 

He it (onetimes called John de PontHTara, who 
built St. Elizabeth's college. In the wall on the 
fame fide under thecheft of Bifhop Wins, is the 
monument of Bilhop Toclive, with this in- 
scription : 

Pnefulis cgregii paufant hie membra Ricardi 

Toclire, cui fnmmi gaodia fuhtu poll. 

Obiit anno 1189. 

Herereih the remains of the piotnbi (hop Richard 

Toclive, may he enjoy the delight of heaven. 
He died in tbe year nSo. 

At the eaft end of the fonthern partition wall, 
lies the body of Richard Fox, biihop of Win- 
chefter, the pious founder of Corpus ChrilH Col- 
lege in Oxford, who died A. D. 1528'. Hit mo- 
nument is a moll finiihed fpecimen of the improv- 
ed Gothic ; here is no infeription to his memory-}. 
but he is reprefented by the effigies of a fkeleton. 
Within there is a fmall oratory, 01 chapel, called 
Fox's (ludy, which he nfually frequented for bis 
devotion. The roof is highly finiihed ; and the 
paflion of our Saviour is reprefented over it* altar 
in beautiful painted carved work. At the cafl end 
of -the northern partition wall, k interred Stephen 
Gardiner, bifhop of tbis See, under a monument 
of plain architecture. He is likewife reprefented 
by the figure of a fkeleton ; which received great 
injury in the civil wan. He died A. D, 155;. 
Tfe* 



■WINCHESTER. « 

The traverft; Wall, betwixt theft monuments, un- 
tier which is the entrance into the K.*ip$&pn, or 
Reft! ng- place, has the arm* of Charles the fecond 
at the top, and was formerly ornamented with the 
Oatues of feveral Saxon kings, bilhopt, tec who 
had been buried near this fpot, with the/e infciip- 
tjoni under them, in Saxon character*. 

Kingulftus Rex. Kinewaldoc Rex. Ad alpha* 
Rex. Edwardus Rex Senior. St. Birinns, Epif- 
copus, Eghertui Rex. Alfredna Rex filial ejus. 
Athelftanus Rex filius ejoi. Edredus Rex. Ed- 
gar Rex. Emma Regina. Alwinus Epifcopui. 
Etheldradua Rex. S. Edwardui Rex Alius ejus; 
Canutus Rex. Hardicanutos alius ejus. 

Over each name, is a well executed niche and 
pedeftal, which feem to have been made and or- 
namented by fiiihop Fox. Under the whole is 
(his dtftich : 
Corpora fancWum font hie in pace fepulta. 
Ex raeritis quorum fulgent miracula multa. 
The bodies of Saints here reft in peace, through 
whofe Ihining merits many confpicuous mira- 
cles were wrought. 

Befides the Saxon kinga already mentioned, 
Ethel wolf, Edfed and Edwin were interred in this 
church ; together with fonte of its more ancient 
bifhops, viz. Danewulf, Ethdwold,- Brithwald, 
Walkelyne, Henry de Bloys, tec. In the area on 
the eaft fide of this traveife wall, is a fumptuoue 
and ftately monument to the memory of Henry 
Beaufort, 



4fi THE HISTORY OF 
Beaufort, (on to [ohn of Gaarn, Duke of Lan- 
caster ; he was bilhop of this She, cardinal of St. 
E ufebiu!, general of the Pope's forces againfl the 
Bohamians, and four times lord high chancellor of 
England'; and was a nobis benetaftcr to this 
church. His ffiigin is represented in the cardi- 
nal's habit ; but the Wcriptiea is now totally loft, 
ibis bring all, according to Godwin, that re- 
mained legible near two hundred' yewvago ; 

Tribtrhurer fi neftirem nriftrkoTdias tua*. 
I fhould be in tribulation, if I was ignorant of 
thy mercies. 
Oppofite to this, and. deigned in evident .imi- 
tation of it, is the fjperbfbrine and monument of 
William Waipflcet, bifliop of Winchtfter, lord high 
chancellor of England, and the munificent founder 
of Magdalen college, Oxford, whodied A. D. 14.86". 
He is reprefefited on bis tomb in his epifcopal 
habit, grafping hit heart betwixt his hands. The 
roof and fpire work of his Arine is equal, if not 
fupcrior, iir«xubcTanceof ornament and height of 
finishing-, to any ffraftoie of the Kind in England. 
It was repaired by the mailer of Magdalen college, 
A. IX 1741 • It t* recorded of bilhop Wain Heet, 
that he proposed to the heads of New-college, 
Oxford, to enlarge- their revenues to double their 
value, provided the members of that body would 
pray for hit foul jointly with that of William of 
Wykehaaa, Bat their veairattoa for the memory 
•f their foundex, wa* fo peat, that, upon con£. 
dcring 



WINCHESTER. 47 

Bering the proposal, they judged, that the ccmfly- 
•tng with it would be derogatory to his honour, 
and thererbre refuted the 08'er. Weftwajdof his 
monument are the traces of the effigies of a bifhop- 
of this church, (aid to be Saint S within ; it appears 
10 have been formerly inhrid with.brafs, which wx 
tarried off in the civil war). Near this, ii a 
-tomb raifed fbmewbat higher than die pavement, 
faid to be that ef Lucius, thehrllchnflian kingof 
Britain, and original founder of Winchester cathe- 
dral. Here b, however, rjoinfeription to illnllraie 
this conje&Vre. At th« bottom of the Aeps, 0* - 
the fouth fide of the choir, arc two very aaeient 
monument* ; one of which has so irt&ription ; 
the other belongs to* prior of the convent, who 
■died in the year of oar Lord 1235, and is thus 
inlcrrbed ; 

Hicjacet W'illieraui de Bafing, quondam Prior 
iftiaa Ecclefia:, cnjn» aoirwe propitietur D*ui, 
■fc qui pro immi. ejus oianent, tres annas St 
quinquBginu dies Indulgenti* precipice. 
Here lies William of Baling, formerly Prior of 
this Church, to woofe Soul may God be propi- 
tious; snd hfl who (hail pray for him, ihull obtain 
an indulgence of three years and fifty days. 
The adjoining monument, may with equal pro- 
bability be bis predeceffor'l, whofe name was Wil- . 
liawr de Ba/yrrg and who died A. D. ^84. 

Near the choir, is the tomb of William of 

Edington, one of the bifhops of Winchefter, who, , 

while bim»p of this See, was elected arch- bifhop 

of 



& THE HISTORY OF 

of Canterbury, but when the arch-bifliopric 
wis prefented him, he rejected it, laying, " If 
" Canterbury is the higher rack, Winchester 
« U the better manger." He was made lord 
high treafurer of England, and was a noble bene- 
taftor to this church. He was fucceeded in hie 
Epifcopacy by the famous William of Wykeham, 
{6 denominated from the village where he wis 
born ; which is about fifteen miles fouth eaft of 
this city, in the road to Gofport ; and Hes buried 
in a magnificent chapel, built at -his own ex- 
pence thirteen year* before bis death, foe 
his private devotion. Its foliation, however, feemi 
not at all well cbofcn, if we confider it with regard 
to the beauty of that part of the church in which 
it ftands, where it creates an irregularity, by pro- 
jecting on each fide beyond the pillars ; but Wyke- 
ham was determined to the choice of this particular 
lpot, by a Along religious impreffion, which had 
been ftamped on Ms mind from his childhood : 
for in this part of the old church there had been 
an altar formeiiy dedicated to the B. Virgin Mary, 
where mafs ufed to be celebrated tvtiy morning, 
which feems to have been a favourite one, and much 
frequented when Wykeham was a boy; it had a 
particular name among the people, and was called 
Pexismasse, from the name of a monk of the 
convent, who ufudly officiated in it. Wykeham, 
though young, was eonflant in his daily atten- 
dance at this mai's, and feems even then to have 
chafe the blefled Virgin for his peculiar patron nefi. 



: ,G00glt 



WINCHESTER. 49 

and, in a manner, to hive dedicated himfelf to 
her femce. This, it was, that determined the 
fituation of hii oratory ; and which feems to bare 
been the reafoo of bis dedicating to her his two 
colleges, and calling them by hex name ; over all 
the principal gates -of which be ha* carefully re- 
presented himfelf in the aft of adoMtlon to her, 
at hii and their common guardian. He erected 
this chapel between the very pillars where he per- 
formed his daily devotion in his younger days, 
ngainfi one of which flood the altar above men- 
tioned : this chapel be dedicated to the Virgin 
Mary, and the altar was continued in the fame 
place as before. The bifhop ordered his body to 
be tie potted in the middle of this chapel; and. 
ft> great was hii perfuafion of the reafoo ablcnefa 
and efficacy of .prayers for the dead, that he him- 
felf, a little before bis death, directed that mattes 
fhould be perpetually Jaid for him, in the follow- 
ing manner. ■ The Prior and Convent, in con- 
' fideration of a benefaction made to them by the 

* bilhop, of about the yearly value of twenty 

* marks ; and, inconfidcration of his having at a 

* great expeace, in a molt decent and handfoma 

* manner, rebuilt from the foundations bis and 
'their cathedral church of Winchefler, and given 
4 to it a great number of veKments and other or* 

* o anient* ; as alfo in gratitude for many other 

* favours and benefits moft generously conferred 

* on them by him ; being defirons to the ntmofl 

* of their ability, to compensate with fpiritaal 

D goods 



5© THE HIST08Y OJf 

J goods the many benefits both temporal and fpi- 

* ritual received from him, engage, for therofelvea 
■' and their fuccejfcrs, to perform for ever the fol- 

* lowing fervicc for the health of his foal, and for 
< the fouls of his parents and benefactors. In the 
' fit ft place, in the chapel in the nave of the 
' church, where the biihop has chofen to be bo* 
' ried, three ma fits fhall be celebrated <2aily, for 
' him and his benefactors particularly, by the 

* monks of the convent; the firit jnafj,DeSanc~U 
' Maria, early in the morning throughout die year; 
' the two other ma Res later in the merning, at 

* Tierce, or at fixth hour, either De Sanais, or 

* De Temporal!, as the devotion of the per ion, 

* officiating lhall incline them ; in each of which 

* maffes the collect JtegequKfnnrasJhall be faid 

* during the bifhop's life for his good eftate, and 

* the prayer Deus cui proprinm, for the Jbuls of 

* his parents and benefactors. After the biftiop'a 
'deceafe, inftead of the .collect Rege cjutefomv*, 

* lhall be faid the prayer Deus qui inter Apoftoli- 

* cos, for the bifhop, and for him only. The 
< prior to pay to each of thefe monks every day, 

* one penny ; the facrift to provide for them bread, 

* wine, book, chalice, veflments, candles for the 

* altar, pall, and all other necefiaries and orna- 

* merits. They further engage, that the charity- 

* boys of the priory, fhall, every night for ever, 

* fing at the faid chapel in the honour of the bleifrd 
' Virgin Mary, the anthem Salve Regina, or Ave 

* Regina, and after it fay the pfalni De profondis, 

' wit*. 



"WINCHESTER. Ji 

* with the prayer fideliam, or Inclina, for the 
"* fouls of the father and mother of the bilhop, and 

' for his foal after his deceafe, and for the foals 
■' of alt the faithful deceafed : for which the prior 
•' is to pay to the almoner yearly, on the feaft of 

' the annunciation of the blefled Virgin, fix Ihil- 
■* lings and eight-pence, for the ufe of the faiit 

' boys. It is farther ordered, that the monks of 

'. the convent in prkft'a orders, (hall be appointed 

* weekly to the performance of thefe fervicet in 
' a table by cearfe ; and that, if any one fo ap- 

■* poiBted, (hall by fudden infirmity or otherwife 
' be hindered from officiating, he wall give no- 

* rice of it to the prior or hisfubftitute, who ihall 

* nominate another to fupply his place.' 

This engagement of fl*e prior and convent wait 
dated the 16th of.Aogoft, 1404, about a month 
before the bifhop'a death, which happened at 
Sooth -Waithmn, on Satoidsy toe 17th of Sep- 
tember following, abont eight o'clock in the mom- 
ing, in the 80th year of his nge. His funeral wat 
attended by a' great concourfe of people of all 
forts ; feme, as we may well foppofe, were drawn 
thither by their a'SeAton for him, aril regard for 
his memory; and gaent ■nnrnbws of "the poorer 
fort, to par^aModf the afmi reached out Wthem en 
this occaffon ; fox he had ordered in his will, that 
in whatever place he uoisld happen to die, and 
through whntete* places his body mould be car- 
ri*d, betweoh tbeplaw of hia-death and the ca- 
thedral' chukhif WiacWtw, in all tfctfc.pface*. 
D 1 » 



5 * THE HISTORY OF 

to every poor tenant that bad held of him then? 
as bibop of WincheAer, mould be given, to pray 
for hit foul, fuur- pence ; and to every other poor 
perfon liking alms, two-pence* or one-peony at 
Icaft, according to the difcretion of his executors ; 
and that on the day of hit burial, to every poor 
perfon coming to Wincbefter, and aiking alms for 
the love of God, and for the health of his foul, 
fhould be given four-pence. The abundant legacies, 
benefactions, and charitable donations bequeathe* 
by this great prelate, may he feen at large in his life 
written by the ingenious Dr. Lowth j to .which we 
refer the reader, as.it would be going too far from 
oar iubjeft to introduce them here. We lhall 
only further obferve, that though be had no large 
Jhare of learning, he was a great promoter of it ; 
nis natural genius was much beyond his acquired 
parts, and his drill in politics beyond his eccltfaftic 
knowledge. He was keeper of the privy feat, 
lord high chancellor of England, and prime mi- 
nifter of ftate to king Edward the third ; whom be 
put upon forming tbefe two great projects, which 
made his reign fo glorious, fit ft, upon fetting op 
bit claim to the crown of France, and fecond, 
upon roflituting the order of the garter, in which 
be obtained the honour for the biftiopa of Win- 
chefler to be always prelates of the garter, as an 
appendix to the biihopric, Wylceham bimfelf was 
thefiift, and the enfignt of that order are joined 
with the episcopal ornaments, in the robing of 
bis effigies on his monument. He built the cailet 

or 



WINCHESTER. jj 

<rf Wiitdlbr and Queen borough for the (aid king ; 
founded New College Oxford, and St. Mary's 
College in this city ; he repaired a great number 
of churches in his diocefe, among which he dis- 
tributed one hundred and thirteen film chalices-, 
and one hundred pair of vcfimenu ; he repaired 
and amended tbe roads between Winchcfter and 
London, and in many other places, when they 
were very bad and a'moft impafTable; making 
caufeys, and building Iwidgej at a vail expence j 
he likeivife purchafed eltatet to the value of two • 
hundred marks a year, in addition to the demefne 
lands of the bilhopric of Winchester, that he might 
leave there fome other memorial of his munifi- 
cence, betides that of repairing and rebuilding the 
cathedral church. 

Though the ornaments of his oratory were de- 
flroyed by the rebels, yet his monument was pro- 
tected as before obferved, and remains entire and 
unhurt to this day ; itis of white marble, of very 
elegant workman (hip, with his effigies in his pon- 
tifical robes lying upon it ; and on a plate of brafs 
running round the edge of the upper table, is the 
following inscription : 

Wilhetmus diftus Wickham jacet hie nece victus, 
Ifiius EccleBa* praeful reparavit, eamque, 
Largui erat.dapiffr, probat hoc cum divite pauper, 
Ctmfiliis paritcr Regni fuerat bene dexter, 
Huncdocet elTo plum fundatio Collegiorum 
Oxoniae primum Hat, Wintoniaeque Secundum: 

r>3 j«jit.p 



54 T HE HISTORY OP 

Jugiteroretiij Tumulum qnicoDq; videtii 
Fro tanti.i ineritii quod fit fibi vita perenni*. 
Here, overcome by death, lies Williamof Wickhamv 
Bifhopof this church, which he repair'd ; 
Bountiful" and munificent to the poor; 
U reful to the kingdom as an able politician. 
The noble college he endow'd at Oxford, 
And that foon afterwards founded at Wincheffer, 
Are Handing monumentsof his exemplary devotion,. 
For which, pray God reward him with eternal life. 
Near the door of Langton's Chapel, is a black 
marble, raifed a little above the pavement, with 
a:i infcription to the memory of Frances, Countefi 
of Exeter, who died A. D. 1663, aged S7 yean. 
Adjoining' to this, is the monument of Lord 
Henry Powlett, who died A. D. 1672, with at»- 
infcription, and the arms of the family. Adjacent 
to thefe, lie the remains of the Countefi of Effex, 
under a grey marble, with, her coat of arms and 
icfcriptioo : (he died .4. D. 1656. Here is, like- 
wife, the monument of the Right Honourable 
James Touchet, Baron Audley, and Earl of Caflle- 
haven in Ireland, who died A. D. 1700. And 
near thefe, are the monuments of Bilhop Levintz, 
Sir Thomas Htggoos, and Sir John Cloberry, who, 
for his intrepidity and valour in the fervice of king 
Charles the fecond, was raifed from the obfcurity. 
of a private foldier, to the honourable dignity of 
a knight, and had an adequate fortune given him. 
by that prince.. 

O. 



WINCHESTER. $$ 

Oil the north fiiie of the fttpi leading up to the 
tffcoir, between two pi 1 Ian, »» a Urge vault about 
four feet high, wherein is interred Biftiop MorLey, 
founder of the preterit Epifcopal Palace; and 
Dr. Morley, his nephew, with theit arras and 
infcripdoM* 

In thii church lies Biftiop Cooper, the much 
admired author of Thefaurus. He wai buried- 0* 
the fouth fide of the choir near the biftiop's throne, 
tinder a grey Hone, whack WW removed on paving 
die choir with' marble.' 

In the northern tranfept ii this infer! prion, on 
Thomai Harris, author of forae unintelligible La- 
in- com pofit ions. 

H. S. E. 

Thorn a Harris, 

ftichardi Harris Eqoitis Aurati 

Filius, natn et denatu fextus, 

Qui obiit Jud. a;, 

A "">JDom. 17.4. 
Natui unum tantum Nafciturum, 
Morieni anum tantum Moriturum 
Reliquit. 
Here lies interred 
Thomas Harris, who died 25 th June, 17:14, sged 3 7-. 
Under this Stone entom'd doth lie 
The &Kth Son of a Knight, who chane'd to die, 
A«d*what is vet more ft range to tell — d'ye/re, 
When born, left one to be born after bt; 
Who mutt die too, fb mortal men are fated, 
Vnlef* he and hit works are both translated. 
D 4 The 

. : : .Google 



S 6 THE HISTORY OF 

The more modern Monument! and In fen prion a' 
of this church, being numerous and elegant, cam 
not fail to engage the observation of every fpecla- 
tor ; they will therefore be omitted bere, as a for- 
mal and -entire recital, of them would extend our 
work to a tedious and unneceflary prolixity. Thofe 
already defcribed', are not only the mod ancient, 
but are moil worthy of curious fpeqnlation. 

Prom rhiifurvey of the infkte of the church, we 
would conduct the fpectstor 10 the weft end, which 
is a mafterly Specimen of the mafly Gothic man- 
ner. It is nnilfrcd with two fmall fide fpires, and 
a central pinnacle, in which it a niche or pedcftaT-, 
containing an epifcopal ftaiue of William of 
Wykeham. 

We may obferve, that this See was never re- 
moved fiace its firft foundation - r at moll or sit 
in the fouth-well parts have been. It wat firft 
dedicated to St. Ampbibalus, then to St. Peter,, 
next to St. Swithin, and laflly to the blefled Tri- 
nity. Its Biftiops, b:udes being prelates to the 
moll noble Order of the Garter, are Chancellory 
to the See of Canterbury. This diocefe formerly 
contained the counties of .Surry and Southampton, 
and the I He of Wight i to which Queen Elizabeth 
added the Ifles of Jerfey and Guernfey, Sark.aud 
Alderney, once appendages- of the Bifhopric of 
Conitance in Normandy. The counties, with 
the lUe of Wight, contain three hundred' and 
fixty-two parilhes ; the Ille of Jerfey an hundred 
3nd thirty-one, and that of Guerufey and the 
other 



WINCHESTER. 57 

Ctlier two as many more. It was anciently valued 
in the King's books at 388;!. 39. 3d. and before " 
the reformation paid to the Pope for firft fruits, 
12000 ducats. It is now elteemed one of the 
richeft Bilhoprics in the kingdom. This See has 
yielded to the Church ten Saints ; to Rome two 
Cardinals ; to England one Lord Chief Jnitice, 
nine Lords Chancellors, two Lords Treafurers, 
one Lord Privy Seal, one Chancellor of the Uni- 
verfity of Oxford, another to the Exchequer, and 
twenty-eight Prelates of the Garter. The Dome- 
boc (Doomfday-book) of King Alfred was kept 
in this cathedral, whence it was called Codex 
Win tonienfis ; the Doomfday-book of William the 
Conqueror was likewife depofited here, till it was 
removed to Weftminfter Abbey, where it now 
remains. 

On the f&uth fide of the church flood the Mo- 
naftery of Bcnedifline Fryers, which was fo long- 
famous fur its fplendour, magnificence, and ex- 
tent of buildings; of which, however, nothing 
very confiderable at prefent remains. Some 
parts we may reafonably fuppofe were demolifhed 
In the reign of Henry the Eighth, as ufelcf* to 
his new foundation, and others .have given way 
to modern improvements. The principal part 
now Handing, is the deanery, which was formerly 
the fyior's Hall. It was very lofty, with a roof 
of rafter work Hill to be traced, and was fixty- 
fi ve feet long, and twenty -two feet broad ; but as it 
is now fubiivided into feveral apartments, iti 
D 5 height, 

v r „G00glc 



jS THE HISTORY OF 
height, length, and breadth, are at prefent bit to-' 
the eye. Five windows on the weft fide of this 
Hall Kill remain, with its end-window on the 
fouth. The cloiften of the monailcry formed an 
area in the fouthern church-yard, and Were built 
again ft this tide of the- ehurcb ; which, on that 
account, was not ornamented with buttreffes and 
pinnacles, as on the north fide: and this, with 
the addition of other circumftances, appears from 
a precept in the regifler of Wykeham's Epilco- 
pate, to prohibit the inhabitants of Winchetter r 
or others, from claiming a public way through the 
cloiltersorcourtofthemonallery. In the wall face* 
ing this fide of the church, appears the veftiges of 
fewal arches, and a large gate-way, which pro- 
bably led from the cloilters to the refectory be- 
fore-mentioned ; or, perhaps, was the public en- 
trance from the raonaftery into the cloiiiers, a»d 
from thence to the church. Through an ancient 
portico on the eaftern fcjuare of thefc cloifiers, - 
near the deanry, they palled into the Chapter- 
houfe, which has been long deftroyed, and makes 
up a part of the dean's garden. It was extended) 
under the end of the fouthern tranfept, to the . 
length of ninety feet, again!) which the heads of 
arches, with many of their pillars, ftill appear, 
and prove from their Kyle, that it was built with 
the tranfept, by Walkelyn: fome of the prior* 
were interred in it, among whom was Godfrey, a 
famous (cholar in his time, who died A. D, 1 107, 
and was buried towards the eaft end. That fide 
of 



WINCHESTER; S9 

Of the eloiflers which wai contiguous to the 
-church, appears 10 have been terminated on the 
well, where the rough end of a wall, forming the 
outfide of the weftern fouare, appears agsinfl the 
church ; beyond wh -,h, the cloister ceafing, the 
remainder of this fide of the church is (inilhed 
with a window lower than the reft, and of larger 
dimensions; under it appears to have been n 
lofty gate-way, which was an entrance into the 
chnrch, on the outride of the eloiflers, A little 
diflant front this fpot, at the well end of the 
church, are forne ruinous walls of flint, which 
Camden conjectures to be the remains of a col- 
lege, where Conftans the Monk, fon of Con It a n- 
tine, who nfurped the empire againft Honorios, 
A. D. 406, was educated ; bat the foundation and 
■difiolution of fuch a college are to obfeure, that 
we think it more reasonable to believe, that thefe 
walls are the remains of the moft ancient part of 
the convent built by the Saxons, which was de- 
aoiiibed by Walltelyn, on building the piefenc 
cathedral ; and the height of the ground here. 
about plainly demon Urates the demolition of Tome 
considerable pile. It appears alio, that there was 
a garden, with feveral boufes, within the cemetry, 
under the weft end of tbechnrch : an encroach- 
ment which arofe after the reformation, and 
which, by Archbifhop Laud's injunctions, was 
ordered to be removed, A. D. 163c. Leland ob- 
ferves, that there was a Chapel with aCarnary at 
the weft cod of .the cathedral. 

The 



6o THE HISTORY OP 

The moft conuderable part of the conventual 
buildings feem to have been deflroyed by the fol- 
dier* of Sir William Waller, in the civil wars ; 
for at the fame time that the facrilegiou* out- 
rages were committed in the cathedral, they de- 
molifhed more than half the deanry, and cigbt 
Prebc tidal houfes, and afterwards fold the mate- 
rials. Moll of the prefenr Prebendal houfej, and 
part of the deanry, were rebuilt after the Reite- 
ration. The arms of England, painted on the 
windows of the dean's hall, were put up in ho- 
nour of King James tiie Firft, who wa* en- 
tertained at the deanry, A. D. 1621; during 
which time he planted a fig-tree in the deurt 
garden, which Hill remain*,, with an infcription 
on the wall behind ir. In the fame window ia 
another coat of arms for King Charle* the Firit 
and his Queen Mary, with the infcription C. Ml 
viz, Carolus, Maria; the fame aa appear* on the 
roof of the choir of the church. In the win- 
dows of the deanl library, which ii twenty- 
eight yard* long, and built' foon after the Rettora- 
tion, arc feme ancient piece* of ftained glafj, 
which originally belonged to the priory, and con- 
tain the following figures ; viz. three Saint*, the 
aim* of King Edgar, or of Edward the Elder *, 
of 

* The fime iran, en die Prrfbytert pirtirion-w»ll of 
the Choir, 'air. InfaibM Edwaibvi Rti. But Idjir 
w« properly the Fouadtr of the Convent. See Dugtf. 
Men, Toi. j. 37, 38, ana p*t> 9I1, «Sa, Mb Wilkin*'* 



WINCHESTER. 6t 

ef the See, and of William KLingfmcll, the firft 
dean. Among the fragment), it the .name of 
Thomas Silkftede, prior of the church, and who 
probably was a benefactor to the building) of the 
deanry : at leatt ll appear), that he added the 
Jtone building, with ronnd-headed window), at 
the font* entrance, as hi) initial) T. S. connected 
with hi) ifoal device of a fkiin of filk, Hill" re- 
main in the uppermoft windowa. The entrance, 
or arched gate-way under this building, is, how- 
ever evidently much older than the fuperftruc 
ture. The precincts of the convent, which were 
« ten five, were bounded by a lofty wall of flint, 
a great part of which ftill remains on the foutrt 
and weft fide), and fome on the north -eaft. 
The communication between the epifcopal pa- 
lace of Wolvefey, and the church, was through 
a gate, which ftill remains to the eaftward of the 
church, on which the arms and name of Eifliop 
Fox appear. On the gate beyond ii inferibed 
" Georgia* Morley, epus 1670." To the right 
of thefe, is the dean's garden,, with tbofe of the 
prcbendal hoofe), fituate on the fotith-eaft fide 
of the clofe ; thefe garden) are extremely delight- 
ful, being watered by a branch of the river 
itchin, remarkably dear and rapid, difpofed in 

Cone, vol. t. pig. 144. In Speed'i Hift. Eng. pag. 56!, 
edit. 1614, Edward's inn) ire only the croft. But Ed- 
Iit's, ibid. pi|. 369, the crofvwhb the biidt, ai in this 
window, and the partition- will iboie- mentioned, Kdgar 
«m the Sift who added the birdt. 



6s THE HISTORY OF 

an elegant tafte, and opened on the eaft to a prof- 
pea of the extenfive mint of Wolrefey-caJUe,- 
ttnd other flriking objcfls: 

Wolvefcy-ciille wn a palace belonging to the 
Bifiiopa of Wiochefter, the ruins of which de- 
monftrate tke magnificence and fplendor of it* 
original date. It was built A. D. 11381 by 
Henry de.Bloys, Bifliop of WiocheAer, nephew to 
King Henry die Firft, and brother' of King Ste- 
phen ; and it flood till the civil warsia the reign 
of .Charles the Second, wb'en it- was demolifhcd 
by the Parliament'* force), under" Sir William 
Waller, who left no part Handing that could afibrd 
•ben plunder. The chapel, indeed, efcaped' 
their fury, and Hill' remains ; but it i» evidently 
of a more modern' date than was the original 
building. Leland ; Ays of it, that " WolveTey 
cattle is vrt 11 ton-rid, and for the mod part wa- 
ferid aboat t'* and Camden obferves, that in his 
time it was very fpacious.andfurrourided with many 
•ower?. The refidenoeof the Saxon Kings is by 
feme con}ectnred to have been on this fpot ; and 
the name of WoiVasar is fappofed to be formed 
from the Wulphian Kings, and Eye, which figni- 
Ses the nook of a meadow". On the demolition 
•f this noble palace, Bifltop Morley, in order in 
feme degree to fupply its lofs, expended upwards 
of 2800I. in creeling a convenient hoiife for hi* 
(ucceflbrj, which Hands near the former, and ha* 

■ Hfylin'i Cofmogrsph. p. 31s. sOil, i6«. 



WINCHESTER* 6p 

full Iafcripiion on the front, " Georgiua Moriey,- 
*' Epifcopas, his sedet propriit impenfis de novo 
** ftruxit, A. I>. 1664:" i. e. " George Moriey, 
" Bilhop, built this hoafe anew it hii own ex- 
" pa ace, mi the year of our Lord 1684." It 
afterwards received considerable improvement! 
iron) €iJhop Trelswney, fince whole lime it has 
remained unimproved, and is now almoft totally 
neglected. 

Within the lite of this houfe, or nearly oppofite,- 
Sands the College of St. Mary, of Wine better,, 
commonly called Wiichefter College, which ia 
fttuated to the fouth-eaA of the cathedral, juft 
without the city wall. 

In the fcetch already given of the character of 
William of Wykeham, we did not omit obferving,- 
that both this,- and new College, Oxford, owe 
their exiftence to hi* extenSve liberality. That 
the plan of both were formed early is hit mind,' 
1.1 highly probable ; for he wag no footier preferred 
to the bi thopric of this city, than we find him in- 
tent upon and principally engaged in it. He had* 
certainly long in view the noble defign of mani- 
fefting hit regard for poiterity, by fome lingular 
*ct of benevolence, and none could conduce fo 
Otnch to that great end, as this foundation ; for 
the great plague having a little before raged 
throughout the kingdom, iwept away near one 
half of the people, and nine parti out of ten of the 
clergy ; fchool* were (hut up, and churches for 
the mofi part dcierted, and left without divine fer- 
ricej 



6> THE HISTORY <?F 
vice ; fo that out of mere neceffity, great number* 
of illiterate laymen, who had loft their wives in 
the plague, though they could- hardly read, much' 
left underftand the fcriptures, were admitted into 
holy orders. To remedy thefe evils, and relieve 
poor fcholars in their clerical education, his mo 
colleges were propoftd ; having at the fame time 
in view the honour of God, the exaltation of die 
Cliriftian faith, and the improvement of the li- 
beral arttandfeienecs; trolling that men of letters, 
and of various knowledge, would fee more clearly, 
and adhere to the paths of virtue which he fhould 
point out to them. The defign was noble, uni- 
form, and complete. It was to provide for the 
perpetual maintenance and inftruction of two hun- 
dred poor fcholars • to afford them a liberal fup- 
port, and to lead them through a perfefl courfe of 
education ; from the firft elements of letter?-, 
through the whole circle of the fcieneer; from 
the loweft clefs of grammatical learning, to the 
fcigheft degrees in its feveral faculties, ft properly 
and naturally confifted of two parts, requiring two 
eftablilhments,. the one fubordinate to the other ; 
the one, to lay the foundation of fcience ; the 
other, to complete the fuperftru&ure ; die former 
was to fupply the latter with' proper Aibje&s, and 
the latter waa to improve the advantages received 
in the former. This truly great plan being formed, 
Wylteham's next bnfincfa was to complete and 
eftablifh the two focietie*. A fchool was therefore 
fct on foot at Oxford, called the greater,, and one 



WINCHESTER. tf 5 

at Winchester, called the teller. The one in this 
city, commenced it Michaelmas 1373, ac which 
time be agrees with Richard de Hereon, that for 
ten yean, he fhonld diligently fnltruet in gram- 
matical learning, as many poor fcholars as the 
bilhop mould, from time to time, fend to him, 
and no others, without his leave ; that the bifhop 
Mould provide and allow him a proper afliftanf; 
and that Herton, in cafe of illnefs, or his necef- 
fary abfence, mould fubAitntc a proper matter to 
fupplyhis place. 

This fchool had fubfifted about fourteen year*, 
when Wykeham began laying the foundation of 
this college ; which is fituated on, or near the (pat 
where he, when a boy, was educated. His char- 
ter of foundation bearsdateOflober thezoth, 1382, 
by whkb he nominates Thomas deCranle, War- 
den, and gives his fchool the name of Seint Marie 
College of Wyncheftre. At this time it confided. 
of a Warden and feventy fcholars, and continued 
all along to furnifh the fociety at Oxford with 
proper fuhje&s by eleftion. They were provided 
with lodgings in the pariih of St, John upon the 
Hill, tilt the college was eredled, the Jirft itone 
of which was laid on the twenty-fixth day of March, 
1387, at nine o'clock in the morning; it took 
up fix years in building, and the warden and fo- 
ciety made their folemn entrance into it, chant- 
ing in proceflion, at nine o'clock in the morning, 
on the 30th of March, 1395. The fchool had 
bow CubuJhd near twenty years, having been 
opened* 



J 



H THE HISTOKT &f 

opened at Michaelmas, 1373. It was firft conK- 
mitted to the care of a mailer and u nder- malts v 
enly: in the year 1381, it was placed under the 
fuperior government of a Warden j and this war 
the whole fociety that made their formal entrance 
into it, as above-mentioned. The firft 1 nomina- 
tion of Fellows was made by the founder, on the 
20th. of December,- 1394,: he nominated -five 
only, though he had at that time determined the 
number to be tea. But the chapel was not yet 
quite finiflied, nor wag it dedicated and conle- 
erated till the middle of the next year ; Toon after 
which, the full number of fellows, and of all other 
member* de&gned for the fervice of it, was com- 
pleated by him. The whole fociety, according 
to the ftatutes, coniiils of a warden, fe veiny poor' 
scholars, to be inftruited in grammatical learning, 
ten feculir priefls perpetual fellows, three priefta 
chaplains, three clerks, and fixteen choriilers ;■ 
and, for the in fir u ft ton of the fcholars, a fchoofc- 
maftcr, and an under-mafter oruiher. 

The building is exceedingly commodious, ele- 
gant, and extenfive. The front ii two hundred 
and forty-nine feet in length, and confifts of offi- 
ces on the weftern fide of the gate-way,, and of 
part of the Warden's lodgings on the call. Ad- 
vancing through the firft gate, the tower of which- 
b adorned with a ftaiue of the Virgin Mary, we 
enter the firft court ; on the left fide are the War- 
den's lodgings, which are both commodious and 
ample. That part of them, which fronts the" 
garden,. 



WINCHESTER. 67 

garden, wu erefled at the eapence of Warden 
Nicholas, in the year 1692 ; and were greatly re- 
paired by the prefect public- fpiri ted Warden Lee, 
in the year 1767. That part which facet the 
flreet, was raited in the warden/hip of Dr. John 
Harmtr, as evidently appears by the initials I. H. 
and the year 1597, in which he lived. The 
r.erih front of the fecond quadrangle lofea much 
of its intended effect, by means of another part of 
theft lodgings, built A. D. 1613, which run it 
right angles againfl it on the left. 

We approach the fecond quadrangle under a 
ilately tower, called the Middle Gate, which is 
adorned with the ftatucs of the Pounder, the 
Virgin Mary, and an. Angel. The court' i> very 
extenfive and fpacious, being ninety .fix feet over. 
On each fide of the gate- way, and on the whole 
eaftern fide of this court, are the lodging- room* 
or chambers of the fcholats ; over which are 
commodious apartments for the Fellows. The- 
flair- cafe adjoining to the north- weft angle, leads 
to the apartments of the fchpol-rn after, which 
are fpaciou* and elegant. On the weft, is the 
kitchen, and a convenient conduit. On a wall 
adjoining to the kitchen, ia an emblematical 
painting, reprefenting a trufty tenant ; which' 
has been long preferred as a curious piece of an- 
tiquity. Under it if the following explanation 1 
ESigiem fervi fi vis fpeclareProbati, 
Quifquis cs \xc ocnloa pa (car Imago tuos. 
Forcinum os quocanque cibo jejunia fedat : 



« THE HISTORY OP 

Haec Sera, confilium ne fliiet, arfla premit. 

I>atpatientemAfinu»Doininisjnigantibu!Aurumr 

Cervns habet cehret ire, redire, Pedes. 

Leva docet multum tot Rebut onufta Laborem : 

Veftis munditiem j dexter* aperta rfidnn. 

Accin&u Gladio ; Clypeo m'unitur : & inde 

Vel fe, vel Dumiounr, quo tucatar, habet. 

A trufty fervant's pirtrait would yoa lee,, 
This emblematic figure well fwvey. 
The porker's fnojt, not nice in diet (tews ; 
The padlock fliut, no fecret he'll difclofc. 
Patient, the afs, hit. mallet's rage will bear. 
Swiftnefs in errand, the (lag's feet declare. 
Loaden his left hand, apt to labour faith ; 
The veil, his neatnefs : open hand, his faiths 
Girt with bis (word ; his Ihield upon bis arm ; 
Himfelf and mailer bell protefl from harm. 

The whole Couth fide of the court is magnifi- 
cently formed by. the chapel and hall. The 
latter is a noble Gothic room £xty-three feet in 
length, and thirty-three in breadth, in which the 
fcholara dine every day at twelve o'clock, and 
fup at fix. In the rjppermoA window of this 
hall, on the north fide, are the arms of England* 
and of the Marquis of Winchester. 

The chapel is- an hundred and two feet long; 
and thirty-three broad, and is equal to moft, and 
Superior to many, in our Univerfities ; whether 
we regard its dimenfions, its furniture, or die fo- 
fcmnity which ftrikes ui at our entrance. The 
foeecv 



WINCHESTER. «g 

fcreen, flails, and altar-piece are of the Ionic 
erder, and were executed in the wardenlhip of 
Dr. Nicholas above-mentioned. The altar if 
adorned with a beautiful falutadon- piece, painted 
by he Moine, and given by the Rev, Dr. Burton, 
former!]' bead mailer of this college ; the branche* 
are the gift of the Rev. Chriflopher Eyre, for- 
merly Uftier. The eaft window is painted with 
the genealogy of Chrilt, repretented in the moft 
lively colours, and has been celebrated by the 
Rev. Dr. Lowth, BiJhopof Oxford, in an excel- 
lent poem,* written at thii fcbool. 

The reft of the windows are finely ornamented 
with the portraits of Saints, with their names 
written under then) ; together with the fol- 
lowing infeription, which is in many places at 
prefent deft/oyed ; "Orate pro anima Wiihelmi 
41 de Wykeham Fundatora iftina collegii : '> 
that is, " Pray for X he foul of William of Wykc 
hanij Founder of this College." On the north 
fide Hands the organ. The roof is covered with 
a deling of wood, in imitation of arched Home- 
work, without which, the height would be much 
too great, as is the cafe at New College-chape] ia 
Oxford, where fuch a deling was, in all proba- 
bility, originally intended ; at lead, the prefect 
rafter work of that noble chapel, ii by no meant 
equal to the magnificence of the reft. This rid- 
ing feems to have been finiflied much about tht 

* Calhd th* Union* 



yO» THE HISTORY OF 

ttime of that which covers the Preihytery in the 
cathedral, as it is exaftly of the fame workman- 
(hip. In this chapel, fervice is performed at 
eight o'clock in the morning, and five in the af- 
ternoon, on Sunday) ; and on holiday), at eight 
and eleven in the morning, and five in the even- 
ing ; and at five on their preceding eves. The 
choir con fills of three chaplains, three clerks* 
cne organift, and fixtcen choriften; 

In the Ante Chapel it a reeefi to the fouth, 
■ever part of which Hands the tower, containing 
five bells. This addition, which exhibits a more 
Miodern Iryle of architecture, fecrna to have been 
erected in die reign of Henry VI. together with 
the tower, by William of Wainfleet, Bifiiop o( 
'.Winchefter, whofe anna are cot in the roof. 

In this Kcei>) were formerly two beautiful 
painted windows ; one of which has been long 
-clofcd up; and the other, in order to fupport 
.and Arengtheo the tower, lias had a wall lately 
built agaroft it. 

Round the Ante Chapel are placed the Italia 
originally belonging to the choir, or Inner Cha- 
pel. The brafs plates on (he floor were removed 
hither from the choir, when it was paved with. 
black and white marble in the memorable War- 
rdenfhip of Dr. Nicholas, before mentioned. 

From hence, turning on the left, we.pafa into 
tne Cloifteri, near the entrance of which we per- 
ceive, in the eaftern wall, a door way, now clofed 
J»p, by which the Society formerly patted from the 
T chape! 



WINCHESTER. ft 

tffaapc!, through a corrrfponding one in the oppo- 
site wall, for celebrating the Proceffion called the 
Ciecum, in which they every morning circuited 
the college. Thefe Cloifters conAitute a rtjuare 
of a hundred and thirty-two feet; in the centre 
of which Hands an elegant Gothic edifice, erefied 
in the reign of Henry the Sixth, by John Fromond, 
and intended, by him for a chapel : helikewife ap- 
pointed a chaplain • to officiate in it ; for whom 
he added fpacious lodging! to the weft end of the 
north fide of the fecond court. Thii chaplain was 
.removed at the reformation. The fame benefaflor 
• lib' ordained liveries or gowns, annually, for the 
chofifters j which cuSom has, however, for fome 
wife purports, been of late difufed, and cloaths 
•re fubftituted in their ftead. His wife Maud gave 
two cups to the college, on one of which was en- 
graved the following infeription : 

He wall have Cryftes bleffing to his dele 
Whofo of me drinketh wele. 
John Beckington, bilhop of Bath and Wells, 
was his Executor ; who had been Fellow of New 
College, in Oxford, and wasabenefaftorto both 
Wykeham's Societies. He gave to New College 
the manor of Newton Longueville, Bucks: a fil- 
ler cup, weighing ten pounds.; the bible written 
on vellum, finely illuminated, in four volumes ; 
a filvcr cup, weighing ten pounds, befidcs velt- 

* John Clvfte wai (he firft Chsplain, whom we Sod na- 
titd in the doifUri (arroaiuiiiii this shape}. 

mentt 



•}» THE HISTORY OF 

menu for the choir of that college, A.D. 146$. 
To Winchefter College he bequeathed a filver cup 
gilt, weighing ten pound* nine ounces : two film 
candlefiicksof tbefameweight, and vcfimenta for 
the chapel. 

This chapel -war converted into a library, An. 
Com. 1619, by Robert Pink, Warden. 

Thefe Cloifters appear not to have been com- 
prehended in the Founder's original plan ; as in 
the commiffion he gtvei for the conformation of this 
chapel, he calls the place where they now ftand, 
*' Locum in Cimiterio in difto Collegio Ordina- 
** turn ;" i. e, " The burying ground fct apart 
*' for the college." And while he lay indifpofed 
at Farnham Caftle in Surry, he directs another 
bifhop, " Capellam,Collegu noftri ptope Win-ton. 
" Nee non Alttria in codem erefla, et loewn in 
*' Cimiterio dictf Collegii Ordinatum, tc Lapides 
" pro fupra Alteribui ordinatus dedicare Sc confe- 
" crare ;" " i. e. To dedicate aod confecrate the 
" chapel of oar college, near Winchefter. Like- 
** wife the altar erjfted in the fame place, and 
41 the burying ground fet apart for the college, 
" and ftones for the altar." 

As every particular is fo minutely fpecified, he 
Certainly would have mentioned the cloifters dif- 
tinflly by their proper name, bad they cxiftetl, or 
even been intended ; but, that they were not, fur- 
ther appears from the outfidebuttrefles which fmiih 
the fide of the chapel, to which the cloifters are 
Contiguous, 

Weftward 



WINCHESTER. 73 

Wcftward of the cloifteri,OD one fide of afraall 
Area, ftanda the School ; over the entrance of 
_ which is a llatue of the Founder, made by Mr. 
Cibber, father of the late Co! ley Cibber, Efq; 
Poet Laureat, whofe workman (hip are the two ex- 
cellent figures over Beth km Gate, in London, 
Under the fUtue is this inscription : 
M. S. 
Gulielmi de Wickham, 
Epifcopi Wintonienfis, 
Collegii hujus fundatoris, 
Stat nam hanc c Metallo conflandam 
Atque hoic fumptu fuo ponendant cuuvit 
Ex conjuge affints fua 
Cains Gabriel Cibberus, 
Statu art us Regint 
M oc, LXXXXII. 
To the memory of 
William of Wykebam, 
Bilhop of Winchefter, 
And Founder of this college : 

Caius Gabriel Cibber, 

A relation by his wife's fide, 

And Statuary to the King, 

Had this Itatue call in brafr, 

And erected at his own expense; 

16},. 

This room it finely proportioned, and elegantly 
finilhed. The roof is adorned with beautiful flucco, 
of a bold relief; in which aie introduced the 
arms of many of the benefafiors. It is ninety 
feet long, and thirty-fix broad. On the well end 
E are 

r ,„-, Google 



74 THE HISTORY OF 

are inscribed the following laws, to be oh&rved 
by the Scholars, tic. 
TABULA LEGUM PEDAGOGIC ARUM. 
In TiypLo, 
Deus coliior. Pieces cum devoto animi affefla 
peragumor. Oculi non vagantor. Silentiumefto. 
Nihil piafanum legitor. 

In CBAfK, 

Let God be worfliipped. Let your prayers be 

devoutly repealed. Let not your eyes wander. 

Be Cleat. Read nothing profane. 

In Schola. 

Diligentia qnifque u si tor. SubmiiTe loquitor 

Cecum. Clare ad Prteceptorem, Nemini moleftui 

eflo. Orthographice fcribito. Arma ScholaAica 

in promptu temper habeto. 

In School. 

Let every one ftudy diligently. Speak flowly 

to yourfelf. Loud totbe Matter. Be tioublefome 

to none. Write diftinflly. Have the /chool-armi 

in continual readinefs. 

Ik Aula. 
Qui menfam confecrat dare pronttnciito. Ck- 
leri refpondento. Rccli o runes flanto. Recita- 
tiones intelligenter & apte diilinguntor. In men- 
fa cjuies elio. 

In Hall. 

Whoever fays grace, let him pronounce it dif- 

rinftly. Let the others an fiver. All Hand. Let 

the refponfes be clearly and plainly repeated. At 

fable be all tlent. 

In 

: ,G00glt 



WINCHESTER. 7S 

In Atrio, Ofpido, ad Moktu. 

Sociati omnes i need an to. Modeftia ac obviij 
honrftioribua genua flefluntor. Capita aperiuntor. 
Vultus, geftus, inceffus componunto. 

In Court going out to the H i l l . 

Let all walk in couples. Bow modertly to 
thofe you meet. Let your head be covered. Let 
your countenance, behaviour, and denotement, 
be becoming. 

In C u ! i c » i n, 

Noflu dormitor. Interdin fludetor. Solum 

cabioulorum verritor. Stenrontor lecluli. Munda 

omnia funto. Per fsneflras nemo in atrium pro- 

fpiciio. Contra qui faxit piaculum efto. 

In Chambers. 

Sleep at night. Study in the day-time. Let 
the floor be fwept. Let your beds be made. Lr t 
every thing be neat. Let none look through the 
windows into court. Who does contrary to thefe 
mull be punilhed. 

Ik OMNI LOCO & TEMPORE. 

Qui plebeius ell prcefeclis obteroperato. Qnt 
prefect us t ft, Legitime imperato. Utcrque a men- 
dsciis, oHen'ationibus, jurgiis, pugnis, Se furtts, 
abilineto. Togam, cseteramqae veftem, nee dif. 
fuito nee lacerato. Patrium fermonem' fugito. 
Latinom exerceto.--Ha;t:, aut liis fimilia, fi quando 
deferantur, judicium damus. 

Whofocver is *n inferior, let him obey the pre- 
poftors. Let the prepollors govern mildly. Each 
•bftain from lying, boafting, quarrelling, fight- 



7 6 THE HISTORY OF 

ing, and Healing. Neither unfew or tear your 
gowns, or other garments. Avoid your mother - 
tongue. Speak only Latin. Jf at any time ihefe, 
or the like rules are iranfgrefled, we punifli the 
c fenders. 

On the oppofite end, with proper decoration*, 
is inferibed, 
Ant diice, ant difcede, manet fc« tenia caedi. 
'Either learn, or depart; the third choice re- 
mains to be fcourged. 
The foundation of this fuperb and elegant 
edifice was laid io September, A.D. 1683, and 
itwasfiniihed June 11, 1687. 

The original School, fpecified as fuch by the 
Founder in his ftatntet, was the room which is 
now called the Seventh Chamber. He calls 
it, " magna ilia Domus;" " that great room, 1 ' 
£tuated under the hall. 

From the fchool-a*ea, we pafs into the college* 
meadow, in the middle of which Hands an in. 
Armary, built for the ufc of the Scholars, by War- 
den Harris, in the reign of King Charles the firfl. 
Part of this meadow originally belonged to St, 
Elizabeth'* College, which flood is an adjacent 
meadow to the eaft ; at the di Ablution of which, 
Thomas Lord Wriotbefley fold it to Winchester 
College for three hundred and fixty pounds, on 
condition, that the Warden and Fellows would 
either convert it into a grammar fchool for twenty 
fchoiars, or pull it down before Whitfuntide, 
j S47 1 the latter of which was chofen by the col- 
lege. 

Cm- 



WINCHESTER. fj 

Contiguous to the college, on the weft, is a fpa- 
Cious quadrangular building, forming a fchool 
detached from the college, where young gentle- 
men, not on the foundation, who are called Com- 
moner!, are educated, and live in a collegiate 
man tier, under the immediate care of the head 
Mailer ; a fituation which' mnft be acknowledged 
to be far moreconvenientforthe pnrpofts of learn- 
ing and good difbipline, than the ufual cuftom of 
onr great fchooU, where the youth are boarded 
in the town, and are, by this meant, at adiilance 
from the conftant and ncreffary infpection of their 
proper governors. On one fide of the area of this 1 
ftruflorf, is a commodious cloilter, erected for the 
convenience of the fcholars. Heie is likewife ft 
noble hall, fifty feet in length, and thirty in 
Breadth, in which the Commoners dine, and, 
when abfent from the fchool, purfue their private 
ftudies. 

Tim college is nnder the fupreme jurifdtfliort 
of the bilhop of Winchefter, and is fubordinate, 
under him, to Ne* College, Oxford, to whofe 
particular care and infpeclion it was committed 
by the Founder. He likewife appointed a folemn 
vifitation to beheld there every year, by the War- 
den and two of the Fellows of that college, hit 
auKtants, annually chofen for that purpofe ; tot 
filling up the vacancies, rectifying abufes, and : 
reforming fuch vices and infringements as may 
from time to time arife in it. 

Some time before the Eafter- holidays, an ex- 
hibition is annually obferved by the young gen- 
E 3 tlemea 



7 8 THE HISTORY Of 
tlemen of the fchool ; at which is given three 
medals, one of gold, and two of filvcr, by the Ho- 
nourable Lord Bruce, who was educated here. The 
gold medal is the reward of fuch cf the Student*, 
as give tbe belt cotnpofition, which is one year 
in profe, and the next in verfe : the lilver are 
given, one to him who delivers the bell oration in 
Latin ; the other, for the hi It fpeech in Eiiglifti : 
both taken out of fome celebrated author, of their 
own chafing. 

Here are alfo fome other foundations of a reli- 
gion! and charitable nature, (hat ought not to be 
pa(Ted ovir in filence. The Hofpital of St. John, 
now called St. John's Houfe, wxi not one of the 
molt inconiiderabie. It has been fuppofed by 
many people, from a conjecture of Lcland's, to 
have been built as early as the year 932, by St. 
BrinOan, Bifhop of Wincheiter, becaule that bi- 
ftu'p's ftatue was placed in the chapel : but, by a 
MS of John Truflel, no.v in the poflifiion of John 
Duthy, Efiji it appeals to have been founded in 
the year 1289, by John le Deveoilhe, who givea 
us the following account of it. 

' A. D. 1 289, John le Deveniflie, citizen and 
r.lderman of the cittie of Winchefter, (by li- 
cence from K. Ed. the Firft) founded the Hof- 
pitall of St. John Baptift, {the chappie whereof 
was afterward, vid. Hen. VI. founded and en- 
dowed by the grandchild .of Willm, named 
Richard Deveniihe, for a prieft to fay evening 
and morning prayers their) for the only relief 
of fick and lame foul dyers, poor pilgrim;, and 
■ neccf- 



WINCHESTER. 79 

» neceffitated way-faring men, to have their dyett 
" and lodging their fit and convenient, for one 
' night or longer, as their abilities for trayvayl 
" gave leave, without any expence or paynvct 
'■ therefore ; for the more order] ye performance 
*' whereof, hee endowed yt with competent and 

* fayer allowance, and furnifhed the room:) with 

* bedding, and all neceflarie* for their better ac- 
** commodaticn. Butt none to bee admitted en- 
' uaunce their, without a ticket: from the Maior 

* for the tyme being, who was named Keeper of 
'■ thatHofpital, At the fuppreffioc of fuch houfrs, 

* in the 3 id year of Hen, VIII. the bare houfr, 

* with Tome few bedds, was only graunted to the 
' Mator, Bayliffs, an J Cominaltie of the cittie of 

* Winchefter, and their fucceflbrs, (o be by them 

* ymployed for the place of election of maior and' 
'officers at tymes accullomed, tind for their ge- 
' nerall magazines, and other public occation;, 

* which bath fo ever fiace been refpeftive'y ym- 

* ployed. 

' Vt appeateth, by the booke of ordinances 
< of this cittie, chat in the time of Roger le 
' Long, who fucceeded John Devenifhe in the 
1 place, that their was an ordinance made, that 
' every yeere, uppon the next Monday after 
' Midfummer-day, (except upon fome extraor- 
' dinary occation hindered, and that not to bs 
' allowed of 'but by a genera II arfcmblie) the 
' maior and his brethren, and all the corporation, 
' with their wives, mould meet att tais houfe 
' at fupper, whereatt over and above the rate fett, 
E 4 ' the 



to THE HISTORY OF 

' the maior, for the tyme bed rig, and hee that 

* was maior the prcceedent yeare, w«re to beflowe 
1 a couple of trait capons, which love ffeaft, 01 
' merry meeting, was appoynted to revize the 

• memory of the Devi; nifties. Thu meeting U 
1 obferved to this daye," 

This Hofpital thus becoming the private pro- 
perly of the Corporation, and appropriated to the 
purpofes above-m rationed, it was, in a little time 
after, likewife made an afTcmbly and ball room, 
and nfcd for entertainment 3 of various other kind*. 
It has lately undergone an amazing improvement, 
at the private expence of the prefect Members 
for the city, and is now rendered the compleateft 
ar.tl moll elegant public room in this part of the 
kingdom. It is filttj-two feet in lergth, forty in 
l>read;h, and twenty-fix in height ; contains five 
tuperb chandeliers, and is richly ornamented with 
a variety of pleafing devices in ftiiceo-work. At 
the upper end, hangs the pifture of King Charles 
the Second, painted by the celebrated Sir Peter 
Lely ; it is faid to be the only original in the 
kingdom, "and is valued at upwards of five hun- 
dred pounds. 

The chapel belonging to this Hofpital, adjoined 
to the eaft end, and had a communication by 
means of a large door-way in live prefent party 
wall. It con fills of one ile, aid feems to have 
been a very neat and convenient building, having 
a large eall window, under which was placed 
the altar. Many of its priefis were buried in it, 
as was likewife William Lamb, Efty the pious 
founder 



WINCHESTER. Si 

founder of the college of citizen's widow) ; and 
many other people of note. It appeari, from the 
foregoing quotation, to have been built about 
one hundred and thirty- three years after the Hos- 
pital hfeir. 

This chapel had for a long time, after it was 
fuppreffed by Henry the Eighth, Iain ufelefs, and 
was falling into ruins, when fome charitable dif- 
poSed people Set a Subscription on foot, in order 
to convert it into a charity -fchool, for the educa- 
tion of the poor children of this city. This laud' 
able defign Succeeding, a fchool was accordingly 
eftabiilhed here, A. D. 1710,' and (my poor 
boys immediately taken into it. The fchool has 
been exceedingly welt Supported ever Since its 
foundation, by the liberal benefactions of the 
public. A fchool of the like nature was alfo Set 
on foot, for the education of girls, which has been 
happily Supported by the Same laudable and bene- 
volent means. 

On the north fide of this Hofpitat, ftands the 
commodious college, founded and amply endowed 
by the aforefaid William Lamb, Efq; A. D. 15.541 
for fix poor citizen's widows, who refide here, in 
comfortable habitations, with every Suitable con- 
venience. The original building confided only of 
flight thatched houfes, which when going to decay, 
were new-built and repaired, by one of the Re- 
presentatives of this city. Each widow has an 
income of three (hillings per week, befides fome 
apparel, and other occasional benefactions, which 
render this charity, upon the whole, very com- 
fortable 



t* THE HISTORY OF 
forlable. On the front of the building il thii 
infer iption : 

Frederick Tylney, Efq; one of the Reprefenta. 
fives in Parliament for this city, did re-build this 
Hofpital, A. D. 1669. John Purdue, maior. 

il church -yard, 
1 rice's church, 
y endowed, by 
1672, for the 
ce of ten poor 
ng is commo- 
itations are di- 
ih proper con- 
veniences. Over the gate, at the entrance into 
the court, are the arms of the Founder, with 
tbia infeription: 

Now fliee that is a widow indeed, and defolate, 
trullcth in God, and continues in prayers and 
replications night and day. 

Geo, Motley, Epua. 1671. 

The College of Mat rents. 

Weft of the cathedral, facing the precinct waH 

of the old monaftery, Hands Chrilt's Hofpital. 

This charity was fonnded and liberally endowed, 

by Mr. Peter Simon ds j wherein fix old men, and 

one woman, the matron, live in a very comfort. 

able manner, baring four boys placed under their 

care, who are educated by the matron, and when 

fourteen years of age, have a premium allowed to 

put them apprentice to creditable employment). 

The building is kept in good condition, and has 

a 



WINCHESTER. 8 3 

a large garden behind. On the front is the Foun- 
der's arms, with his name and date, 1706. Over 
the gate, at the entrance into the court, is this 
infcription : 

Chriil's Hofpital, fuunded by Mr. Peter Si- 
monds, of London, mercer, for fix old men, one 
woman, aud four boys, who have a plentiful 
maintenance. He gave alfo ten pounds per ann. 
to two poor fcholars in the Uoiverfities, and 
alfo fome other charities. 

Befides thefe public foundations, here area va- 
riety of private charities, that are almoft every d.iy 
distributing among the neceflkous poor in this 
city. 

About the middle of the High Stroet, Hands a 
beautiful Crofs, juilly admired as a maftetly piece 
of Gothic workmanfhip, It is upwards of forty- 
three feet high, and forty-nine feet in the circum- 
ference of [he lower Sep. We have not been able to 
learn the certain time, nor motive for which it was 
erected. Some have fuppofed itofthe age of Henry 
the Sixth; others that it was founded i'oon after 
the preaching of Birinus, in commemoration of the 
eftablifhment of Chriflianity ; and others, that it 
was erected to the memory of fome Queen or 
noble perfonage,- who either died, or relied here, 
in their way to the place of burial. Some indesd 
will have it, that it was a building common to 
all great markets, in (he center of which they 
were ufually fttuated ; and were ornamented with 
images, aad built in a re! igious (tile, in order to 
inilil 



84 THE HISTORY OF 

inilil into the minds of the populace, a true fpiritr 
or hohefty ar,d juilice in their dealings ; by re- 
prefenting to them, the preachings and divinity 
of the Saints, and death and pafSon of their Re- 
deemer. It is hard 10 determine which of thefe 
fuppoGtions carry with them the greateft air of 
probability ;. for we find in moll cities or towns 
of any confequence, that a croft cither is r or ha* 
been erefted in the centre of tbeir market;, and it 
is certain, that the markets of this city have been 
time out of mind held ronnd the crofs. It is no 
left certain, that erodes were Ibmetimcs formerly 
ertfled where the deceafed bodies of fome noble 
perfoMS lay ia llate, In order to perpetuate their 
memory, and itir up the (a perditions of tbofe days 
to pray for die departed foul, and to recollect 
their own mortality, CrofTes of this kind were 
crefted A. D. 129 1, by King Edward the Firfl at 
Lincoln, Newark, Leicefter, Gcddington, North- 
ampton, Stoney-Stratford, Dunftatlc, St. Albans,. 
Waltham.Cheapfideand Cbaring-Crofs, being the 
places where the corpfe of his Queen Elinor lay in 
Sate, or refted in her way to London: but thefe, 
as were all others creftedon fuch occaGom, were 
dillingiiifhed by the arms and Itatoe of the deceaf- 
ed perfon, or its founder, whicKdoes not however- 
appear in the Crofs at Winchefler; nor does it cor- 
icfpond at alt with thofe faid to be creeled ort 
purpofe for market-places; fuch as Coventry,. 
Gloucester, SalHbury, tec. and from hence arifea- 
tke fuppofition, that it was erected in commemo- 
ration of the progrefsof the ChriiUan Religion ia 
this- 



- WIUCHE STIR. »? 

th-Ti City; fince no building is found to refcmblc 
it throughout the kingdom. 'Tii certain, no 
■ lace was now famous-for Chriftianity, 01 abound. 
«d more with religio at foundation t r than did this 
city: therefore it can be nothing ftrangenor im- 
probable, that it might have been founded by fome- 
ofthofe religious focietiet, in commemoration of 
their eftablifliment here ; and certainly its ftile and 
ornaments, prove it to have been the production 
of fome pioua dtfign ;. tor in a niche on the weft 
fide Hands theefligy of St t John the Evangelift, and 
the niches on the north, eatt, antl fouth fides, 
are faid to have been once filled with the Saints 
Matthew, Mark, and Luke. This Croft wat re- 
paired, and newly painted in the year 1.770, at 
which time a fcaftbld was creeled, with an intent 
to pull it down ;. but fortunately, by the diligence 
and refolation of fome of the inhabitant*,, this cu-. 
riout piece of antiquity it Hill preferred. 

In the year 1763, an infirmary wit eftablUhedJ 
here,. by voluntary fubfeription, after the laudable 
example of St.. James's, Well mi nfler, and St; 
George's, Hyde-park Corner. Its inftitution, 
which was the firft of the' kind in England, (thofe 
of London and Weftrainlter only excepted,) owei 
its evidence chiefly to the indultryand indefati- 
gable zeal of Dr. Atured Clarke; who plainly 
forefaw, that the cleanlintfs with which the poor 
may, if ftrictly attended to, be kept in an hofpi- 
tal, would contribute infinitely more toward* 
their recovery, than their own manner of living: 
at home ; that it would provide for many fick per. 
fons, unable of thcmfclvet to procure help, and 
perhaps 
. .Google 



tg THE HISTORY OF 

perhaps unwilling or Hftiamed to draw continual 
affiftancef'rom parifh collections; that it would 
be a means of preventing feme of (Fie greateft dif- 
trefles to which the poor are fabjeft, and by which 
they are often loft, fo that many ufeful agents 
would be annually fared to the community ; that 
it Would preferVe them from the impofition of ig- 
norant quacks and impoftors, and be a confider- 
able faving to the public in general, by furnifh- 
ing the phyftcians and fargeons with more expe- 
rience, and leffening the poor rates in every pa- 
rilh, by taking oft" their greateft occafion of ex- 
pence;- thefe, and various other confederations, 
i'uggeftcd by him to the public, and enforced with 
the utmoll propriety and ftrength of argument in 
hi* fermons, and other publications on that fub- 
jefl, fo effectually prevailed with the generous 
and humane, that the firft annual fubfcription 
amounted to upwards of fix hundred pounds. 
And when the great utility of fuch a foundation 
became more apparent; when a variety of extra- 
ordinary cures were performed; and when the 
charity was found to anfwer every good end, its 
revenue foon encreafed to upwards of a thoufand 
pounds per annum; and initiations of the like 
nature were in a Ihort time eftabliQied throughout 
the kingdom, • 

When this foundation had been inftituted about 
twenty years, and its revenues were conQderably 
«ncreaf;d, the large manfion^houfe of Sir John CIo- 
bery, wasjpurchafed by the governors, who creeled 
the pre feat county-hofpital upon the fame (pot, 
Thii 



WINCHESTER. 87 

This magnificent edifice was Opened for patients 
at Michaelmas, A. D. 1759, the front of which 
h two hundred and twenty four feet in length, 
and is afcended by a noble flight of Heps. It 1 
contains Gx wards, and is furnilhcd with every 
other convenient office ; befides an extenfivc green 
on the eaft fide of the building, wherein the pa- 
tients are at proper times permitted to receive the 
benefit of the air, 

About the time this building was fet on foot, 
commenced the laft war with the French, who 
feemed to threaten us- with a very formidable in- 
vifion. Flat bottomed boats were in great num- 
bers conftrufted for this purpofe, and the forces 
deftined for the enterprize amounted to fifty thon- 
fand men, daily exercifed in landing and re- land- 
ing, in order to render them the more familiar to' 
the nature of their expedition. ^Whether thefc 
preparations were aclually intended for adefcent, 
or only defigned to terrify and intimidate the En. 
glim, is uncertain; it however, had the latter ef- 
fect to an amazing degree; for the mini [try, loll 
to all fenfe of their own internal ftrength, and ren- 
dered pufillanimous by the imminent danger which 
feemed to threaten them, had immediate re- 
eourfe to a body of Heffians, amounting to about 
tenthoufand men, who were purchased and brought 
over to protect as many millions of Englifhmen, 
fnppofed to be incapable of defending tbemfelves. 
Thefe troops were landed at Southampton, and. 
Out they might be inreadinefe on any occalion to 
oppoft 



ST THE HISTORY OF' 

oppofe the expected irmptioD of the enemy, they 
were ordered, to encamp ■on the downs adjoining to 
this city. 

Notwith Handing the great expericeof maiutain- 
>og there foreign troops, and the everlalting re- 
proach entailed on die kingdom,, by foliating their 
feeble affiftance; yet this city leems to have bees, 
materially? benefited by it.. Encampments, and 
inch like military lights, were things fo rare in 
this country,, that people flocked from all parti 
of the kingdom to gratify their euriolity. And 
during the whole campaign, which tailed near fo 
ven months, Winchefter was continually crowd, 
ed with fpectators, and its trade thereby confi- 
derably increafed.. 

In the courfc of the war, this campaign was fol- 
lowed by feveral others that conlilted principally 
of the militia of the refpefliye counties, embodied 
foon after the Heffiana were difmifled. Thefe were 
flationed here, to be in readinefs in cafe of any fad- 
den attempt of the enemy, and in order to feci ire 
more efteftualty the prifoners of war, (amounting 
to upwards of five thoufand men) confined at that 
time in the royal palace. And, as thefe fugitives 
had frequently alarmed the town by repeated at- 
tempts to break loofe, the troops, when the feverity; 
of the fcafon obliged them to decamp, were in con- 
fiquence thereof, provided with barracks in this 
city, where feveral regiments of them lay during, 
the winter feafon. 

The advantages derived to the city of Win. 

defter by thefe operations, were very considerable. 

The 



WINCHESTER- S? 

The officers, moftty gentlemen of rank, and of 
large eliatcs, tho' temporary inhabitants, brought 
with them their families and friends. Thefe ex- 
cited maoyof the nobility and perfona of the fir ft 
rank to join them, whtlft others, from principles 
of curbfity and fpeculation, re far ted in great num- 
bers to participate in the fame fpecies of amufe- 
ment. The common fold it r» even, added not a. 
little. to the general confumption ; fo that opon 
the whole, the Interna! trade and importance of the 
city was fo much encreafed, that the djfconti nuance 
of thefe great events, which Aibiided with the 
proclamation of peace, A. D. 1763, was not capa- 
ble of reducing it toils Former ftate of obfcumy and 
neglefl; on the contrary, a fpirit of emulation 
feems to have dWFofed itfc If throughout the inha- 
bitants, tending to its united interelt and improve- 
ment. The navigation like wife, which had been 
long engroffisd, was now by the induftry of fome 
individuals, again laid open, and made free by 
w'-ich the coal trade has been rendered infinitely 
more extenfive ; the value of the river confi, 
derably encreafed, and the prices of coal amaz- 
ingly reduced, to the great comfort of the poor,, 
and benefit of the public of this neighbourhood in 
general. 

But thefe riling advantages, were only a kind of 
prelude to a more noble defign, viz. that of pav- 
ing and lighting the ftreets, after the example of' 
the metropolis ; an undertaking, which, though 
condemned bya few narrow-minded men, will be 
ever applauded by the major part of the inhabi- 
tant*,. 



go THE BISTORT. O-F 

tants, and in the end, be beneficial to diem; 
The aft for this purpofe wit granted, A. D. 
1770, and the bu Griefs has been fince carried into 
execution with great vigour, and it completely 
fintlhed ; alt which have carried with them fuck 
a variety of other improvements, as cannot fail 
to give a fecret fatisfaetion to the citizens in 
general. 

A new market-houfe in coofeqpence of the pave* 
ment wai fet on foot in the mayoralty of Sir 
Pawlet St. John, Bait. A. D, 1771, which it 
now completely finifhed, fo that in alhorttime 
we may venture to hope, that tbe market! will be 
better regulated, and that more vigilance will be 
Hied in preventing the common cuftoin of hawk- 
ing commoditiei found the town, and the iniqui- 
tous practice of foreftalling, both of which are 
deitruitive to a reafooable and well fupplied mar- 
ket, and highly detrimental to the welfare of the 
■city. 

To thefe advantages which the city of Winches- 
ter has received by art, we may add, were it ne- 
cefTary, innumerable one* by nature, being Situ- 
ated in a delightful vale on the banks of the river 
Itchin, and in a fertile op:n country, bounded by 
dil>ant woods, aud interfperfed with rifing hills, 
"and watry winding valleys, which prcfinting tbtm- 
fclves alternate to the eye, at once aftbrd a variety 
of the molt pleating objects of rural contempla- 
tion. The temperature of its climate, is undoubt- 
edly exceeding wholefome, and has been io all ages 



WINCHESTER. 91 

on that account, highly celebrated. Mr. Truflet 
writes, • That fewe chat come from other placet to 

* plant heer, no, not one among ft fortye, but ate 

* their firft coming, they are entertayned with a 
' /harpe but (hort fever, which fo thoroughly clen- 
' feth them from all peccant humours, that after 
' their full recoverye, their health for the moft 

* parte uninterrupted, hath no need tochallendge 
' any heatpe from ^fculapioi, or his follower). 
' I affirm yt boldly and trwely, that experience 

■ * doth approve yt, that the purity* of the ayre 
' there is fat eh, that nether PhyGciao, Apothe- 
' carye, or Surgeon, did ever growe rytch by 

* their practice in that place'. How far this ac- 
count agrees with the prefent time, I leave the 
lead™ to judge; but mult beg leave to fay, that 
the numerous great ages which appear 00 the 
tomb-lionet in all the church-yards, is a recent 
vindication of one pan of Mr. Trade)'* obfcr- 

Althoogh the city of Winchefter is pofTefted of 
noextenfive foreign trade or manufactory, yet it if 
populous, and well inhabited: and th,e great num- 
ber of genteel families thatrefide in it, contribute 
to make it polite and agreeable. 'The country- 
feals, and adjoining villages, which are elegant 
and numerous, add much to the agreeablenefs of 
its iituation, and render the public meetings bril- 
liant and fa fh ion able. Avington, the feat of his 
[Grace the Duke of Chandosj the Grange, be- 
longing to the Earl of Northington, amongft 
many 



5 z THE HISTORY OF 

many others, afford amufemeot and hoipitality 
to the curious and fpeculative traveller, ■ 

The hofpfral of St. Mary Magdalene, about * 
mile call of the city wcllde&rves ourobfervatioq. 
It is fo antient, that no traces can be difrovcrcd,. 
cither of its foundation or founder. 

It appear t from the beft authority, that thereaf- 
ter and the brethren had not only a handfome fub- 
filtance, but very good lodgings, only part of 
which, with the mailer's boufe, now remains. 
Adjoining to this, on the fouth, i* the Chapel, 
which iiin the clear feventy.feven feet long, and 
twenty-fix wide. It conufta of three ailei, and 
the roof is fupported by two rows of columns, 
five on each fide, with pointed arches; and the 
windows are fuch as are commonly called Gothic. 
Only the (hell of this building, (which was fon- 
merly an elegant one), is at prefcnt Handing., 
It is Urge enough, as appears from the above 
dimenfions, to contain a great number pf people. 
It feems therefore to have been defigned not for 
the Mafl er and Almsfoltts only, but for others 
ltlcewife ; and that' multitudes went thither for- 
merly, is evident from the oblations made at the 
box, which amounted to a conliderable furo an- 
nually. Thefe buildings alone arc ar prefent 
within the walls oftfie bofpital ; but before the firft 
Dutch war, in the reign of Charles U. there was the 
alms-houfe inhabited by the brethren and fillers, 
which joined to the mafW's lodgings northward, 
and extended towards the eaft of them ninety 
feet-; and towards the weft, ferenty eight feet p 
whist* 



WINCHESTER. gi 

Whicli, together with twentyaeight feet, the depth 
of the Manet's houfe, made its whole length 196 
feet ; and the depth of it was twenty-fix ; Co that 
every one of the poor people had lodgings about 
twenty-four feet in front, and twenty-fix feet in 
depth. The barn, which now Hands on the north 
eafi corner of the ground within the walls, wai 
part of the alms-houfe, which was continued on 
from thence weftward, fo as to make the whole 
length above-mentioned. 

Here feeras alfo pi ovificm to have been made at 
once for the pleafure and profit of this little fo- 
oiety; for they had two gardens, the one called 
the Pear-tree garden, and the other the Mount- 
garden, on the eaft fide of the hofpital. And they 
bad befidcs within their nails to the weft, at leaft 
two acres of land, on part of which probably Hood 
their barn, (tablet, &c. Sooth of the chapel was 
their burying ground. Without the walls of the 
hofpital adjoining to them, they had fixteen acres 
of land, which might, in fome degree, fupply 
them with corn ; and they had pafture for txo 
ewes, and fix rams, from which their table was 
fnrniffied. They kept the whole in their own 
hands, and here the mailer and poor lived to- 
gether. 

In the war between Charles I. and his parlia- 
ment, the hofpital fullered confiderably from the 
King's troops. Out of its little flock of fheep 
it loft 36, which were killed by the foldiers ; the 
reft by order of the mailer were conveyed away for 
preservation to the diltance of 16 miles. A large 
quantity 



94 THE HISTORY OF 

quantity of corD was ftolen, and the great gate), 
doors, barns, (tables, and almoft all the timber 
they could find, was burned. The chapel did 
notefcape their fury: The feats, the communion 
table, thewainfcot, and in fliort, whatever was 
combuflible was committed to the flames, and 
after all this outrage, they converted the houfe of 
God into a liable for their horfes. 

In the Dutch war (1665) the Government wa*. 
diftrefled for a place, in which the prifoneri might 
be confined. Magdalene Hofpital was judged to, 
be fit for the purpofe. The fituation was healthy, 
a city at hand.to fupply them with ptovitions, the 
buildings were large, and there was a confide rable 
quantity of ground furrounded by walls, in which 
the prifoners might take the air. An order there- 
fore, Ggned by the King and Lord Arlington wa* 
difpatched, commanding the Mafter to remove 
the Almt-frlfe*, from the Hofpital, that the Dutch 
prifoners of war might be admitted into it, and 
to provide lodgings for the poor people in Win- 
chefler, at the king's, expence. The order waj 
oOeyed, and, 'he Winter following, the Dutch 
burned all the timber they could find; and before 
they left the Hofpital, did great damage to the 
Mailer's houftr, and demolifhed the Alms-houfe, 
They treated the Chapel as the troops of Charles 
the Firft had done. The Chapel bell, all the iron 
bare, and lead about the chimneys of the Brothers 
and Sifters rooms were carried away. In fliort, 

• Alms-women, by midakt in tho Order. 

tit 



■WINCHESTER. .95 

the Hofpital was reined ; it never recovered from 
this defblation; and the Mailer, Brethren and 
Sifters never returned to it afterwards. 

Ad humble petition was pre fen ted to his Ms- 
jefty rep refen ting the damage 1 which the Society 
iad fultaineH, and praying relief. The eftimate 
of the expence of re-building the Alms-houfe 
was 6jol. tbe allowance made by Government 
was tool. 

We forgot to mention, that thefe poor people 
-were obliged to leave their houfes in the Winter. 
A lodging, indeed, was to be provided for them, 
in this city; but this piece of humanity, in all 
likelihood, proved fatal to them. For, the plague 
was in Winchester, if not when they quitted the ' 
Hofpital, at leaft in the March following, and 
probably fwept them away, with many others of 
the inhabitants. So dearly did they pay for their 
obedience. 

May we here for ft moment flop, and be thank- 
ful for the blefiings of a legal government--— that 
we cannot be inftantly turned ont of our honfea 
by a ministerial, or even a royal mandate. Let 
thefe perfons who wiih for the return of the gol- 
den days of Charles the IT. enjoy the invalu- 
able privilege, of having no home ; or, which 
is the fame thing, no fuie habitation for a Angle 

Although the antiquities of the foregoing Hof- 
pital with its founder, are fomewhat obfeure, yet 
we have the pleafure to find, that thofe of St. Crofa 
which is fituated about a mile fouth of the city, 

n, ,., .Google 



$6 THE HISTORY OF 

are much more evident and certain ; iti charter of 
foundation, and mod of iti records being Ailt ex- 
tant. It was originally founded by Henry de 
fllois, Biihop of Winchclter, in the year of Sal- 
vation 1131, for the health ofhii own foal, and 
thofe of hit relations, and of the Kings of Eng- 
land. The founder's inllituttons, requires, that 
thirteen poor men fo decayed and paft their ftreng th 
that without charitable alSftancethey cannot main- 
tain themfclvei, {hall have continual habitation 
in the Hofpital, and be provided with proper 
cloatbing, and beds Suitable to their infirmities. 
That they (hall have a daily allowance of good 
wheat bread, good fmall beer, three merles each 
for dinner, and one for fupper. But in cafe any 
one of thefe (hall happen to recover his health arid 
ftrength, he mail then be refpect.fully difcharged, 
and another admitted in his place. That befide* 
thefe thirteen poor brethren, one hundred other 
poor, of model! behaviour, and the rnoft indigent 
that may be found, fliail be received daily at dinner, 
and have each a loaf of common bread, one mefs, 
and a proper allowance of beer, with leaye to 
carry away with them the remains of their meat 
and drink after dinner. The founder alfo ordain- 
ed other charities to be diftri bated among the poor 
In general, as the revenues of the hofpital Ihould 
be able to bear, the whole of which was to be ap- 
plied to fuch cfes. 

The endowment of this hofpital was not alto- 
gether derived from the founder's own private for- 
tune, but confided principally in a donation of 
ft vera I 



WINCHESTER. y? 

Several confiaerable rectories, Arc. belonging to bis 
diocefe, or that were under his patronage*, the 
greateft part of which, though granted to the hof- 
piul by the exprefs terms of the Charter of Foun- 
dation, were, notwithstanding, only made fubject 
to the payment of certain annual penfions; the 
iclt were appropriated to the hofpital.f. 



■" The churches of Ferrebam, [with the manor of Alitor]] 
Nuttdrelynae, Melebroeh, T*jfojd, Henton, Alvtarefloclt, 
Eito.., Huffeborne, WytchercUe, Chiibalton, Wodehay, 
Awslton, [or Aijton in Canyngmetfh, Com. Wilts] Wyn- 
teney, [or Wytney, OxfonMh.] Stoflon, [Wilti.] vyngton 
with their appertenancits, and dependencies j and the 
tythes of the Lordfliip of Waltbam, and Other rents slTign. 
ed in the city of Winchefter, arc fpecified in the Charier 
of Foundation. To thefe were afterward s added by the 
Founder, the churches of Wakham, Upham, Baghurft, and 
Farle, 

■J- "Licet in ifta Charta contineatitur diverts donationet 
C^clefiarumfafr.domuiSanct Crucisprcdi£ts.ni>;hilorflimis 
dicta doniu. nullas earum hibet flhi appropriatas ptiter ec- 
clefias de Hulborne, Whitcherche, Fareham, et Twyford, 
cum Capellis ; fed habei ex cis ccttai penfiones, ut fuperiui 
dictum eft. L)e ecclelia vero de Wyteneye nihil omnino 
percipit. i. e. Though different donation! made to the 
1 forementioned Houfe of St, Croft, be contained in the 
Charter [of Foundation,] neverthelefs the .faid Houfa 
has none of them appropriated to it, except the churchea 
of Hulborne, Whitchurch, Farenam, and Twyfoid, with 
their chapels; it has out of thefe aboveiqfntioned, certain 
pennons, hut from the church of Wyteney, it receives no. 
thing." MS. penes Dom Epif. Wint, I. *i See alfo Lswth'* 
XifeofWykeham, p. 74. 



o3 Tflfi HISTOXY Of 

The revenues of the hofphat of St. Croft appetr, 
by an aid record of inquifition, to have mounted 
Originally to 250I. per annum; in Wykehazn's 
time, they were faid by him in his fetters to the 
Pope, to be above 300!. per annum ; and were af- 
terwards proved by the teftimeny of one of the 
Stewards, co-temporary with Wykehain, and by 
Several others, to have exceeded in his time 400I. 
per anoum; the whole of niikh were free from all 
taxes both to the King and Pope, as being entire- 
Xy appropriated to the ufc and benefit of the poor; 
except 7I. 41. 6d. per annum, which was the 
valuation of the matter's portion. 

The particular allowances to the poor, accord- 
ing to the above-mentioned record of inquifition, 
were as follows : each of the thirteen fecular bre- 
thren, were allowed daily one loaf of good wheatea 
'bread, of five marks weight, that is, three pounds 
foar ounces ; one gallon and a half of good fmaH 
beer ; a fnfficient quantity of pottage ; three meiTei 
at dinner, viz. one mefs called Mortrell, made of 
milk and waftelbread*, one mefs of flefb or fifli, 
and one pittance as the day flionld require; and 
one mefs for (upper, the whole of which was the* 

• By Wsflelbread **> tesfcanlf wtderftood ■ better Ant 
of bread, fo denominated from a Waftel, the vtBVI or 
fcafket in which is wai made, or carried, or weighed j at 
feemi probable from the following piflagf : - OSapaaa,^ 
i. WtJMlti, fn&rii agifikt "^fidli **k> mkt* f WWB nW -' 
ft." Regift. Wjke. p. ill. B. UA. 177. Sec Lowth's 
tifcof Wjkeham, p. 7*. 

raised 



WINCHESTER; 99 

valued it 1 7<J. q. a week; and in Wykeham's 
rime, it 3d. a day. On fix holidays in the ye* 
they had white bread and ale, in the feme quan- 
tities-, and one of their ntefies wasroaft meat, or 
£(h of a better fort y and on the eves of those ho- 
lidays, and that of the founder's obit, they had 
an extraordinary allowance of four gallons of ale 
among them. 

The hundred cafcal poor were fed in a place 
called Hundred- mtnnijkall; each of them bad at 
loaf of inferior bread of five marks weight, three 
quarts of fmall beer, a fume tent quantity of pot- 
t*£f, oramefs of pulfe, one herring, or two pil- 
chards, or two eggs, or one farthing *s- worth of 
eheefej value 3d. q. per week: out of which 
hundred poor were always thirteen of the poorer 
ftholari of the great grammar-fch?ol of Winchef- 
Kr, few by the fchool -matter. On the anniver- 
fary of the Founder's obit, Augmt 9, being the 
eve of St, Lawrence, three hundred poor were re- 
ceived at the hofpital ; to each of the firft hundred 
were given one loaf and one mefs of the fame fort 
with thofe of the brethren's ordinary allowance, 
and three quarts of beer; the fecond hundred re- 
ceived the ufual hundred- mens allowance, and to 
each of the third hundred, was given half a loaf 
of the brethren's bread. On fix holidays in the 
year, the hundred men had each a loaf of the bet- 
ter fort of bread, and a double mefs. Befidei 
tide, there were maintained in the Hofpital, a 
F z Steward, 



i» THE HISTORY OF 

Steward, with his Clerk, and two (errant*, an if 
two hones; a porter,, nine fervanti, two teams of 
£x horfes each, and two carters. 

The founder had con (United in the year t 157, 
the Mafter and Brethren of the hofpital of Sr. 
John of Jerufalem, to be Guardian) and Admini- 
flratorj of hit hofpital of St. Crofs, faving to the 
Bilhopof Winchefler his canonical jurtfdifliorr. 
Adifputearifing between Richard Toclive, bifhop 
of Winchefler, (immediate fucccflbr to the foun- 
der) and the Mailer and Brethren of St. John of Je- 
rufalem, concerning the administration of the Hof- 
pital ; Henry II. intetpofed, and by hi* mediation 
an agreement was made between them. The 
Mafter and Brethren ceded to the Bifhop and his 
fucceflbrs the adm initiation of the Hofpital ; and 
the Bifhop gave them the impropriation of the 
thurchei of Mordon and Hanniton, for the pay- 
ment of fifty tlirce marks per annum, and pro. 
curing them a discharge from the penfion of tea 
marks, two wax candles, and ten pounds' of wax, 
paid to the monks of St. Swithin for the hofpital 
of St. Crafi, by competition between them and* 
the brethren, of that hofpital, made in the life- 
time of the founder. 

Soon after this reconciliation, bifhop Toclive, 
nut of regard to God, and for the health of the 
King's foul and his own, (apprifed that the re- 
venues of the hofpital were fufficient for the main- 
tenance of many more poor, and ought not to be 
converted to other ufe») ordered] that over and 
above 



w^rrrc hester. ioi 

ibovctlie number inftituted by the founder, one 
hundred additional poor (could alfo be Ted every 
day at the hofpital, with the Tame provisions and 
allowances, » were granted by the founder to the 
hundred poor men above mentioned. This agree- 
ment if dated April 10th, 1185, and was made 
at Dover in the preftnee of the King, and attefted 
by him. Ic does notfeem, however, to have been 
Of any long continuance; for it ceafcn* long before 
Wykeham's tjme, and inftead of it, (by what au- 
thority it uncertain) was introduced an eltabtilh- 
ment of four priefts, thirteen fecular clerks, and 
seven cborifters, who wen maintained by the hof- 
pital for the performance of divine fervice in the 
church. The four priefts dined at the matter'* 
table, and had eaah a ftipend of 1 js. +d. and 
the whole allowance to each was valued at 3I. 
6s,. 8d. per annum ; the thirteen clerks had 
each daily one loaf of wheat bread, weight fixty- 
one Ariltiagt and eight.pence, or jib. ion. three 
quarts of beer, and one mefs of flelh or fifh of the 
brethren, was allotted to two of them, value tod. 
cj. a week ; the feven chorifters had each one loaf 
of the common family bread, and one mefs, or 
(be fragments of the mailer's table and common- 
hall, fo as to have a futfkieiit provifion value jd* 
per week, and they were taught at fchool in the 
Hofpkak 

Such was the original irift it uriort and oeconcmy 

of this Hofpital, which though hitherto wellob- 

ferred in general, and conAantly maintained with 

regard to the abovementiontd partiflwWs, yet, in 

F 3 ptoceft 

, .Google 



io* THE HISTORY OF 
procefs cf time it was materially injured by the. 
avarice of feveral of its mailers. Among this num- 
ber John Edyndon, nephew to the Bithop of 
Winchefter of that name, is particularly remarked, 
as having confidered Sis office in the light of an 
ecclefiaftical benefice, rather than the mafterfhip 
of an hofpital, and a place of trull, and who 1a. 
fuppofed to have converted to his own private 
purpofes, great part of thofe revenues which wctb. 
defigned for thefe pious, and ^charitable ufes, con- , 
trary to the canons, and to the founder's inftitu- 

During the time Wykeham held this Hofpital 
in fequeilration, he recovered many of its original 
charters, bulls, and inftruments, which had been 
futrered to remain in the hands of the hc-fpitallera> 
of St John of Jerufalem ; he re-inftated the charity 
in all its ancient rights, re-eltablilhed its primi- 
' live defign and inftitutton ; and in lliort, he com- 
pletely reftorcd its buildings, ellates and revenues, 
out of that Date of ruin and diflipation, to which- 
lie found it had been reduced. Cardinal Beaufort, 
who immediately fucceeded Wykeham, in the bi- 
shopric of Winchefter, having refolded to dilpofe 
of a confidenblc Aim in charitable purpofes, chofe 
rather to make- an enlargement of this Hofpital, 
than to erect a new one of his own. He therefore 
made a very great additional endowment to it, 
for the maintenance of two prielts, thirty five 
brethren, and three fillers, excluuve of thofe of 
the original foundation, and built lodgings for 
them, in the year 1444. To this new cftablilh» 
nnt 



WINCHESTER. 103 

merit, he gave the title of Doinus Eleemofinaria 
Nobilis P.iupcrtatis; i. e. The Alms-houfe of 
Noble Poverty: by which it appears, that he de- 
igned it for the relief of decayed gentlemen. Its 
endowment confided of manors, &c. of the yearly 
value of ij ool. granted to it by Henry VI. in con- 
fi deration of the Aim of 1-3 j$o markj, paid to him 
by the founder, who afterwards added to them, 
the impropriations of Crundill, and fe viral other. 
Churches of his diocefe and patronage. 

The Hofpital, though confiderably diminimed 
Jn its revenues, perhaps in a great meafure by the 
fame means, as thofe of St. Mary Magdalene, ftilJf' 
fnbfiffci upon the remains of both endowments, 
which at prefent maintains a Mailer, and nine 
poor Brethren, who enjoy their places during life. 
The allowance of thefe nine poor brethren, is one 
pound of meat a day, three quarts of good fmall 
beer, and five loaves of Wheat bread, twenty- four 
ounces each ; befides which, they have, on many- 
particular days in the year, certain additional 
allowances of ' meat and drink; and fix-pence 
weekly. 

There are likewise four out- pen lion ers upon 
this foundation, who enjoy a IHpehd often pounds 
per annum each, during life: The fum of twenty* 
five (hillings is alfo dillributed among the poor, 
every year, being the remaining part of the re- 
venue formerly appropriated to the feeding of the 
poor in hundred-mennelhall. And, on fix par- 
ticular eves in the year, are given away it the laid 
Hef- 
/ 



1*1 THE HISTORY OP 

Hofpittl, a certain quantity of loavei, of good 
Wheaten bread of the vaftre of one penny each, 
to the poor people Id and about the neighbour- 
hood. Moreover, there it allowed daily to Um 
porter of the faid Hofpiut, a certain quantity of 
bread and beer, for the refrefljraeut of poor tra- 
veller* nd way-faring men, who are entitled 
to knock at the door of the porter's lodge, and 
claim the relief of a piece of White bread, and 
a cup of beer; a donation which is continued at 
this day. 

The building* belonging to thii foundation Cos* 
t& of one extenfive irregular court, which hni a 
beautifully rural effect, and all together eahibio * 
niece of venerable antiquity. The church, which 
i» a canon* remain of Saxon Architecture, wis 
built in the reign of King Stephen, by the firft 
founder » itkiutbe foanef aCrofi, andcenfitta 
of three ilei, with a tranfept, or croft ile. The 
Mof is repmrhaHy lofty, and it fupported by 
round anuBive pillar*, with round headed archea. 
granger than the Doric or Tufcan ; and there am 
fome painting! upon the pillars and walls, of that 
fame. kind with thofein the Cathedral, and in the 
Chapel of St. Mary Magdalene. The tie* front 
the attar ta the weft-door, are 150 feet in length* 
and the tranfept ia lao. The Chancel ii exceeding* 
ty. neat, and it paved wish marble ; and on each. 
fide of the altar, ate hendfome fcreentof (pire work 
carved in Oone, and neatly ornamented. Upon * 
«•& on the left fide of the Chancel, are carve* 
the 



WINCHESTER. icy 

the names of all the officers belonging to the hofr 
pital about the year 1575; among which are (hols 
' of a chanter and tinging men ; which formerly 
officiated in it ; but at prefent there is no proviiioiv 
for a choir. 

The great weft- window of this church is built 
in a very ornamental itile, and was formerly an 
elegant onej as is obvious from the remains of 
' fbme curious painted glafs, with whuh it was 
once furnifhed. There remains nothing in it, 
at prefent legible, or at leaft intelligible, except 
the words Nicholas Bedford. A window in the 
eaft fide of the north' tranfept, was formerly orna- 
mented in the fame Ililc, and there Hill remains an 
Ave Maria, with fo me fragments, under which is 
*' Orate pro anima Ricardi Batelhall,- i,. e. Pray 
for the foul of Richard Bnteflwll." He was miller 
of this Hofpital, in the year 1346. And in the 
fouth window of the crofs ile, are thefe arms, 
viz. Gules, three Lions heads paflant, fleur delis 
reverted, or three eagles quartering Barry, and a 
chief. On the roof of the Nave, are two cheve- 
rous between three rofes, the arms of Wykebatn ; 
alfo the arms of Prince and England quartered, 
There is a coat of arms between thefe two, which 
is defaced. 

The lodging rooms of the poor people, adjoin to 
the church, at the well end of the fomh-ile, and 
after forming an angle, extend from North to 
South, and form the whole weftern fide of the 
court. The North fide con fills of the mailer's 
boots' 

n, : ,G00glt 



106 THE HISTORY O? 
noufe which is fpaciom and elegant, the rcfectri* 
rj, or brethren's hall, and the gate-way. Id the 
windows of the refectory, are thefe arms, viz. 
Argent. A croft pat. S. Quartering France and 
England. A bord. Gabon. In this hall, th* 
brethren meet to fhare their allowance; and on 
feme certain days in the year, they dine and Tap- 
together in common. The gate way before-men- 
tioned, is formed in a fqurre ftately tower, over 
which is a room called the Founder's chamber. 
The North front of the tower is embcliifhcd with 
three niches; in one of which remains theeffigiea- 
of Cardinal Beaufort, in the aft of adoration to 
another figure, now deitroyed. Beneath thefe on- 
each fide of the gateway are the fame arms as lift 
mentioned! for the Cardinal j who ii fuppofed re* 
have built the gateway, the refectory, the maIW» 
noufe, and all the lodgings on the weft fide of the 
court, and the portes's lodge. The whole eal6- 
fide of the court, from the porter's lodge, to the 
north tranfept of the church, confilli of a c killer, 
over which is a gallery, or range of decayed apart- 
ments, fuppofed to be a part of the lodging room* 
of the poor people on the original foundation of 
Henry de Blois, and who were probably in pro-. 
cefsof time forced out by the matter and brethren 
of the latter foundation ; or by the decay of their 
lodgings and revenues, which might have become 
no longer able to receive and fupport them. 
Againft the walls of this gallery, is inferibed, 
** Dilexi fapientiam R. S. 1503. i. e. I have 
*■ cowcied Wifdom." R, S. for Robert, or Roger . 
Sherborne 



■WINCHESTER. 107 

Sherborne, matter of this HofpitsI; who was a!fo 
preferred from hence to the Biflioprick of St, 
David's. He was afterward* bilhnp of Chicheflcr, 
and founded in that cathedral church, four pre- 
bends, lor which place thofe only are qualified, 
who are, or have been Fellow* of New College, 
Oxford, On theoutfideof the Cloifter, i) this in- 
scription ; " Henrico* Conrpton, Epifcopa*, t. e, 
Henry Compton, bilhop." He wm* aUb mafter 
of thii Hofpital, and from henoa promoted, 
A. D. 1674, to the See of Oxford, ud afteo 
wards to that of Londota 



The 



,eB THE HISTORY OF 

The Nam" of the Churche*, or Chapels, whick 
were in Winchefter and it* Suburbs, about the 
yearizSi, taken from the Rcgifter of John de 

Poctiffara, B'llhop of Winchefter. 

i OT. Pane's, wtifcout Eaft-gatej in the pa- 
O nonage of tke Prior and Convent of St. 
Dermic, near Southampton ; not taxed, but there 
if a penfton of vs. tenth* 6d. 

2 St, John's upon the Hill, in the fame patron- 
age, taxed xv marks, tenths, xxs, penfion vi 

marks. 

3 All Saint*, in the Vineyards, fuppofed to have 
been without the walls near North-gate ; parr. 
of the Abbefs and Convent of St. Mary, Winton. 

4. St. Nicholas, without King's- gate. 

j St. Valericus. 

6 St. Martin's, Parch me nt-flreet, patr. of the Ab- 

bef* and Convent of St. Mary, Wherwetl, t. xls. 
y St Michael's, in King'sgate-ftreet, patr. of the 

Bi (hop of Winchefter, taxed Ixs. Pontiff. R. 
8 St. Mary Kalendar, over again It the Pent-houfe, 

patr. of the Biftiop of Winchefter. xls. 
o St Peter'* Whi te- bread, • patr. of the Abbot 

and Convent of Hyde, not taxed, pennon vis. 

tenths ivd. taxed afterwards xxs. 

* Suppofed to hive flood in the lite Mr. PeMe's garden, 
in « ft net which formerly ran from Staple-garden by ike 
dde of ihe Three Tuns, into the Ssck-Unc behind the 
Ceoiae, 



WINCHESTER. 109 

IB St. Peter's, without South-gate. 
4i St. Margaret's, faid to have been in Gar-ftreet, 

pair. Biihopof Winchefter. 
u'St. Paul's, in the fame facet} and the feme 



Ij St. Mary's, in Tanner* ftreet, Lower-brook*. 
*4 St. George'*, Silver-hill •, in the psrr. of ■the 

Abbot and Convent of Hyde-; v)i marks, pca- 

fioa xd. tenths ixt, ivd. tenths id. 
15 Alt-Saint) rn Gold-ftrtet, (Southgate-flreot); 

faid to have flood in Mr. Sheldon's garden} the 

patr. Bifhop of Winchefter, (aa fuppofedj 
}(> St. Michael's, In Alward-ftreet. 

17 St. RombaW'j ; patr. the Biftopof Winchefter* 
not taxed, penfion Hit. tenths, iiid. * 

18 St. Mania's in Alward-ftreer. 
j 9 St. Mary's without Eaft-gate. 

no St. Boniface's, fuppoftd to have bee* Jn Gold 

(now Sooth-gate) fireet. 
a i St. Petroce't, in Carpe (now St. Thomas's) 

rtreet ;. the official of the Biffiop of Winchefter, 

22 St. Nicholas, without the wall. 

23 St. Nicholas, near the fifties, probably in Gold 
(now Sooth-gate) ftreet; patronage the Kflioa 

■ of Winchefter. (as fuppofedj. 

?4 St. Clement's, South- gate- ftreet, where the 

Blaclrfmith's ihop now is. 
*5 St. Mary's in the Chorch-yardj the SaerUl of 

the Cathedral Church, (as fuppofed). 

G 6z 



jjp T&£ HISTORY OF 

,36 St. John's in the Ivy, in T«w«-flre*t, faov 

.Lower Brooks). 
27 All Saints, Bok-ftrete (now £u fleet-lane, J il 

jit be the Church °f Biicko're.te mentioned 40 

Beaufort's Regifterj not taxed} jenfionxiid. 

tenths id. 
,8 St. Michael's in Jury-ftreet.; patr. the Abbot 

and Convent of Hydfe not taxed; penfion xHd. 

icrithsid. 
, 9 St. Martin's in Paivftreet, (now Bowiwg- 

ereen-lane.J 
30 St. Martin's, jn Wode-ftrete; (raid to have 

been from the Bell-Inn, Northwards.) 
if St. Martin's in the Ditch } fnppofed to haw 

been without Weft-gatej patr. the Bilhop.of 

Wincheftef. 
3 z St. Swithio'si over ting's-gate; pad. of the 

Archdeacon of Surry, 
3 i S(. Mary's, near Gold (now Southgate) ftrret. 

34 Su John's of the Hofpital, f St, John** Houfe 
or rather the School.) 

35 St. Pancrace, faid to have been in Wonger- 
ftreet, i. e. Middle-brooks; patr, the Bilh'op of 
Winchefterj xls, beiidea a penfionofivs. 

,6 St. Swithin's, in Mulward-ftreet. 

37 St. Peter's in Colebrook.ftreet; patr. the Ab- 
befs and Convent of St. Mary, Win ton, xls. 

38 St. Stephen's, near Wolvefey ; vi mark*) tenths 

jq St. Peter's, in the Shambles (i, e, St. Peter'a 
jdrcet;) pair, the Biihop of Winchtfter, xls. 

40 



WIN C If l S T E H. , iiY 
4b St. James's of the White Monaitery, the'burj- 
ing ground of th! Papilla ; pair, the Bifhop of 
Winchefter, cs. tenths x*. 
4' i St. Bartholomew's,, in the Cbutt of Hyde* 
(now Hyde Church).; patr. the Abbot and Con- 
vent of Hyde; x marks, tenths xiiti. ivd, 
41 St. Anaft&fius*, fuppofcd to have been near" 
Welt-gate without the city wall'; patr. Bifhop 
of Winchefter; not taxed, penfion, vs. tenth* 
vidl 

43 Chapel of Wyke, or Chapel'de Walle.f faid 
U> have been without Weft-gate, near Mr. Hof- 
loway's garden that was; patr. the Bilhop of 
Winchefter, xv marks, tenths, xxs. 

44 St- Maurice's, in High-ftrwt; patr. the Bilhop' 
of Winchefter, vi marks, tenths viiis. viiid. 

4'-; St. Mary's of the Linen Web. 

46 St. Lawrence's, near the market; patr. the- 
Abbot and Convent of Hyde, is markj, tenth*' 
xiis. taxed afterwards- at Is, 

47 St, Martin's in Wyuehall, patr. of the Bilhop' 
of Winchefter, xii' marks, tenths xvii.- 

* Part of the wall of this church is now ftuxUng; and 
adjoins to the Weft-gite, «n the North. 

f There is mentioned in this Kegifter, (If we remember 
right) <• SanQa Maria de V.Ik tcI de Vallibui," [which 
we thirk was this cbipel]" cum Capeile de Wyke." And 
we find in Beaufort's Regltler, « Eccls/ia; btite Ma- 
rie de Valfo cmoCuptlle." 

G : Name* 






Name* of Chnrcbei'from Wykeham's Regilttr.. 

ewer Northgfte, in the patronage 

tad Convent of Hyde, 

s, in Vico CanuGcum, now St.. 

patr. of the Prior and Convent of 

ear Southampton. 

leWalda. 

of our Lady of Weft-gate, faid* 
on the feuth fide of the gate. 
II, in Calpe (now St. Thoma»'»> 
fireet toward* the north end, xxa.. 
53 St. Martin's in the fane ftreet. 
y+ The Chape] of St, Gertrude,* taied x maiki,. 

tenth* xiiis, ivd. 
55 The Chapel of the Holy Trinity. 
sfa The Church of St, S-owold, taxedatu*. 
'5; St. Saviour's Church. 

'58 Si. Swithia'*, in Fklhmonger (tow St. Pe- 
ter'.) ttreet. 
59 St. Swiihin'f, in Shnrworth-ftre«r» (Upper- 
Brook*. ) 
*o St. John'a of- Fort-Latino, in Bukke-ftieet*. 

Busket-lnne. 
i\ The Church of St. Andrew, in Gar-ftreet, 
Bowliag-gretn-lacc. 

• R h not .WbMtelY etrtafc thn-thlt Chaptl wai t« 

Winclwrterorinfubuibi: but from iiifiowiifla inth«R«* 
t#t*>; it fetnu htshlj ptf&ifck ihaUtwai, 

6c 



WINCXHE STIR. njW 

**»St. Mary Wode's Church, the door cafe of 
which is now to be fccn clofe to the Btfl- 
Inn. 

Namn of the Churches from Beaufort's Regifcuv 

63 St. Martin'* in, Vico Caroificura. St'. Peter'* 
ftreet. 

64 Sc. Martin's in the fiune. 

Tt it poffiWe that feme of tbefe Churches may 
have been mentioned twice under different namei »• 
for inffaace, St. Mary of the Linen Web, in Pon- 
tiflan, may be our Lady of Weftgste, in Wyke- 
ham't Reg. St. John ia the Ivy, ia Taoaer- 
ftreet, may be the St. John of Port Latine of 
Buck.flrect. If it flood at the. comer of Bufltrt- 
bne, towards the J-ower- Brooks, it might be,fa*4 
(o Hand in either of those Arret*. So that lie 
churches- *ia Wincherter and in fabwbi, might, 
not be quite (o nnmeroas at they appear to haw 
been by this lift. Hut they molt have been very 
near it. For fuch inftances at we hare mention- 
ed are extremely few. So that wa cannot help 
being aftoniflntd at (be attliitude of Churches 
which were in Winchelter in ancient times. 
Acd the' more to, when we reflect that the reli- 
gious boutes with which this city abounded, had 
(many of them if ant all) chapelt of their own, 
which we bnve tslten no notice of.. 



IH- THff HISTORY &t 

But though the multitude of ihofe faer*d 
places be fgrprifing,. we are not to imagine, 
that all the churchei and cbapels which appear 
upon our lift willed together.— One might rife- 
oat of the ruin* of another i and this confidera, 
lion may a little abate our aftonilhrnent. Yet 
forty-eight, mentioned 'in Pontiffara's Regifter, 
did 1 certainly co-extft — but we may venture to ef- 
fort, that 62 (which is our whole number) never 
did. Perhaps the medium between 6a and 48;' 
may 'bring ui nearer to the truth. 

The following ii a lift of the decayed Streets 
in the City of Winchelter, taken from the Am 
chives in the Tower of London, dated Anrw 
30-Hen. VK 1451'. 

Pirft, Juri Arete, wheteynne were iiii ftouro 

- hoofe-holdes, and now ben but ii. 

hem. Flefhmonger flrete, whereynn were (even* 

feme boufholdei,. and now ben bat ii. 
Item. Pari fh men t Arete, whereyjm were fixtyi 

houlholdcs, and now ben bat liii. 
Item, Colebroke ftrete, whereynn were eight- 

fcore houfholdes, andVnow ben butxvi. 
Item, Calpe Itrete, whereynn were one hundred 
. houfbold**, and now ben but vi. 
Rem. Gold ilrete, whereynn were- fevenfeoro 

houlholdes,. and now ben but viii. 
Kern. Burden ilrete, whereynn were fixty houfe-, 

hcUdes, and- now is nevetoon^ 



WINCHESTER. i*j 

Stem. Shu I worth ftretc, wbereynn were feventy 

houfh&ldes, and now ben but iiii. 
Item, fiukke flrete, wbereynn were forty Jioufe- 

holdes, and now ben but ii. 
Item. My'neftre ftrete whercynn were foiufcnro 

and ten houlholdes, and now ben but iiii. 
Item. Gar ftrete, whereynn were one hundred 

houiholdes, and now U never oon. 
The number of houfeholde* that ben fallen i* 

1040, and theire ben fallen withynne the fame 

citee, fcith the laft parliament fcolden there, 

fourfcore houfboldes and oon. 
Tbeife ben the pariftte Churches, that ben fallen 

down within the faide citee. 
The church of Saint Saviour, in Burden Arete 
The church of our Lad v. in ditto . 
Thee 
Thee 
Thee 
The c 
Thee 
Thee 
Thee 
The ( 

The church of Saint Fetroke, in ditto 
The church of St. Nicholas, in Golde ftrete 
The church of Saint Boniface, in ditto 
The church of Saint Margarette, in Gar fcete 
The church of Saiot Andrew, in ditto 
The church of SaiotPaule, in ditto 
The church of Saint John in the Ivy, in 1 
arete 

The Number xvii Churchct. 



•toliRfcCWON* ft* placing tte<?DT%' 



m\ The fifft Mayor, of Winch«fl*rj .page £. _ 
£. View of the King'i Palaee, p. *,-', 
^. View- of lie Cathedral, p. a+, < +■ ■ < ■ 
*, View of the Epiftopal palace, p. 6i. -* 
r.'Th* Twfty S<f»Mit,-'p; 6/1.?' " : . - ■ 
,. '. • of Wincriefter College, p. 7!,-', 



J. *T, 



H«CV 



:C00glj J